SODIUM CHLORIDE - (7647-14-5)

Wprowadzenie

Nazwa: sodium chloride
* IUPAC
Numer CAS: 7647-14-5
Symbolika Chemiczna: NaCl
Masa Molowa: 58.44277 g
Procent Mass: Na 39.337 %; Cl 60.662 % 

Klasyfikacja

Używa/Funkcja

• "Hundreds of thousands of tons of sodium chloride go to the making of sodium carbonate, and great quantities are used in the electrochemical processes for the manufacture of caustic soda, chlorine, hypochlorites, and chlorates. Sodium chloride is an indispensable article of diet, and is the source of the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice. Salt not only gives the accustomed savor to our food, but has important uses within our bodies. As a harmless food preservative, salt keeps butter, meat, and fish for future use as food. Other industrial uses include salting out soap, setting dyes on fabrics, making brines for refrigerating plants, and thawing railroad switches in winter time." 1

• "used as table salt and as the source of all other compounds of Na and Cl2

• "The compounds NaCl, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH are used in food processing, road deicing, water treatment, glass manufacture, paper making, and the chemical industry." 3

• "Sodium chloride, from which sodium is extracted by electrolysis, can be obtained in a fairly pure form by the evaporation of seawater in large ponds." 4

• "Ion-exchanger regeneration [in chemical water analysis]" 5

• "Some NaCl is essential in the diet of humans and animals because many biological functions are controlled by the concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions. Animals travel great distances to reach a "salt lick," and farmers often place large blocks of salt in fields for cattle. The fact that salt has been important for a long time is evident in surprising ways. We are paid a "salary" for work done; this is derived from the Latin word salarium, which meant "salt money" because Roman soldiers were paid in salt. We still talk about "salting away" money for a rainy day, a term related to the practice of preserving meat by salting it." 6

Właściwości Fizyczne

Temperatura Topnienia:*
800.7°C 7 = 1073.85 K = 1473.26°F
Temperatura Wrzenia:*
1465°C 7 = 1738.15 K = 2669°F
Gęstość (g/cm3):
2.17 at room temperature/pressure 7
* - 1 atm pressure

Rozpuszczalność

Jakościowy:
rozpuszczalny: eter dietylowy • etanol 7
bardzo dobrze rozpuszczalny: woda 7

Wiązania Chemiczne

Wiązania Chemiczne: ionic
Ionic Character: 67.58 %

Termochemia

    Standardowa Entalpia Tworzenia Związku Chemicznego        Energią swobodną Gibbsa    Pojemnosc Cieplna   
kcal/mol kJ/mol cal/(mol×K) J/(mol×K) kcal/mol kJ/mol cal/(mol°C)    J/(mol°C)   
(s) -98.23 8 -410.99 17.30 8 72.38 -91.79 8 -384.05 7

Reakcje

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 1 - Exposure would cause irritation with only minor residual injury.
Flammability: 0 - Will not burn.
Reactivity: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water.

Zobacz Też

Wikipedia
Czasopismo Naukowe:
Quintin Johnson, Science 153, 419-420 (1966)

Źródło

(1) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 188.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 928.
(3) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 6.
(4) - Brady, James E. and Senese, Fred. Chemistry: Matter and Changes, 4th ed.; John Wiley and Sons: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2004; p 1012.
(5) - Hammer, Mark J. Water and Wastewater Technology, 2nd ed.; Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986; p 9.
(6) - Kotz and Treichel. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 4th ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 1999; p 1014.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4-84.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(9) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 229.
(10) -
(11) -
(12) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 76, 86, 138.
(13) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 71.
(14) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 91.
(15) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 87.
(16) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 92.
(17) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 139.
(18) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 94.

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