MAGNEZ

Wprowadzenie

Liczba Atomowa: 12
Grupa: 2 or II A
Względna Masa Atomowa: 24.305
Okresu: 3
Numer CAS: 7439-95-4

Klasyfikacja

Metale
Niemetale
Półmetale
Metale Alkaliczne
Berylowce
Metale Przejściowe
Tlenowce
Fluorowce
Gazy szlachetne
Lantanowce
Aktynowce


Transuranowce
Brak Stabilne Izotopy
Ciało Stałe
Ciecz
Gaz
Ciało Stałe (Przewidywana)

Opis

Compounds of magnesium have long been known. Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. It was isolated by Davy in 1808, and prepared in coherent form by Bussy in 1831. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals. The metal is now principally obtained in the U.S. by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines, wells, and sea water. Magnesium is a light, silvery-white, and fairly tough metal. It tarnishes slightly in air, and finely divided magnesium readily ignites upon heating in air and burns with a dazzling white flame. It is used in flashlight photography, flares, and pyrotechnics, including incendiary bombs. It is one third lighter than aluminium, and in alloys is essential for airplane and missile contruction. The metal improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum when used as an alloying agent. Magnesium is used in producing nodular graphite in cast iron,and is used as an additive to conventional propellants. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of pure uranium and other metals from their salts. The hydroxide (milk of magnesia), chloride, sulfate (Epsom salts), and citrate are used in medicine. Dead-burned magnesite is employed for refractory purposes such as brick and liners in furnaces and converters. Organic magnesium compounds (Grignard’s reagents) are important. Magnesium is an important element in both plant and animal life. Chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins. The adult daily requirement of magnesium is about 300 mg/day, but this is affected by various factors. Great care should be taken in handling magnesium metal, especially in the finely divided state, as serious fires can occur. Water should not be used on burning magnesium or on magnesium fires. Natural magnesium contains three isotopes. Twelve other isotopes are recognized. Magnesium metal costs about $170/kg (99.99%). 1

Używa/Funkcja

•(as the Mg2+ ion) plays a vital role in metabolism and muscle functions" 2
•commonly used to produce the bright light for photographic flash units" 3
•is a useful structural material, especially if alloyed with aluminum" 4
•alloys having more magnesium than aluminum are used when a high strength-to-weight ratio is needed and when corrosion resistance is important, such as in aircraft and automotive parts and in lightweight tools" 5
•It has been suggested that magnesium, an essential component in chlorophyll, is removed from pine needles by the combined effects of ozone and acids...Another harmful effect of acid rain may be that it leaches essential metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ from soil as soluble salts." 6
•The tires on the Hummer vehicles used in the Gulf War were made blowout-proof by strong, lightweight magnesium inserts....used in photographic flash accessories and fireworks. It is very lightweight and is currently used in many alloys for building materials." 7
•used in lightweight alloys...Mg compounds find applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical process industries." 8

Właściwości Fizyczne

Temperatura Topnienia:9*  650 °C = 923.15 K = 1202 °F
Temperatura Wrzenia:9* 1090 °C = 1363.15 K = 1994 °F
:9 
Punkt Potrójny:9 
Punkt Krytyczny:9 
Gęstość:10  1.74 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja Elektronowa

Konfiguracja Elektronowa: [Ne] 3s2
: s
: 3
Elektron Walencyjny: 2

Liczby Kwantowe:

n = 3
ℓ = 0
m = 0
ms = -˝

Wiązania Chemiczne

Elektroujemnoś (Skala Paulinga):11 1.31
Electropositivity (Skala Paulinga): 2.69
Powinowactwo Elektronowe:12 not stable eV
Stopień Utlenienia: +2
Praca Wyjscia:13 3.66 eV = 5.86332E-19 J

Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 14  kJ/mol  
1 7.64624    737.7
2 15.03528    1450.7
3 80.1437    7732.7
4 109.2655    10542.5
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 14  kJ/mol  
4 109.2655    10542.5
5 141.27    13630.5
6 186.76    18019.6
7 225.02    21711.1
8 265.96    25661.2
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 14  kJ/mol  
9 328.06    31653.0
10 367.5    35458.4
11 1761.805    169988.3
12 1962.665    189368.3

Termochemia

Pojemnosc Cieplna: 1.023 J/g°C 15 = 24.864 J/mol°C = 0.245 cal/g°C = 5.943 cal/mol°C
: 156 (W/m)/K, 27şC 16
Ciepło Topnienia: 8.954 kJ/mol 17 = 368.4 J/g
: 127.4 kJ/mol 18 = 5241.7 J/g
Stan Skupienia Materii Standardowa Entalpia Tworzenia Związku Chemicznego (ΔHf°)19  (S°)19 Energią swobodną Gibbsa (ΔGf°)19
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.814 32.693776 0 0
(ℓ) 2.16 9.03744 10.16 42.50944 1.46 6.10864
(g) 35.28 147.61152 35.50 148.532 27.03 113.09352

Izotopy

Nuklid  20 Czas Połowicznego Rozpadu 20 Spin 20 Energia Wiązania
19Mg 19.03547(27) 1/2-# 107.42 MeV
20Mg 20.018863(29) 90.8(24) ms 0+ 131.34 MeV
21Mg 21.011713(18) 122(2) ms (5/2,3/2)+ 145.94 MeV
22Mg 21.9995738(14) 3.8755(12) s 0+ 165.20 MeV
23Mg 22.9941237(14) 11.317(11) s 3/2+ 177.94 MeV
24Mg 23.985041700(14) Trwałe 0+ 194.40 MeV
25Mg 24.98583692(3) Trwałe 5/2+ 202.48 MeV
26Mg 25.982592929(30) Trwałe 0+ 213.35 MeV
27Mg 26.98434059(5) 9.458(12) min 1/2+ 219.57 MeV
28Mg 27.9838768(22) 20.915(9) h 0+ 228.58 MeV
29Mg 28.988600(15) 1.30(12) s 3/2+ 232.00 MeV
30Mg 29.990434(9) 335(17) ms 0+ 238.21 MeV
31Mg 30.996546(13) 230(20) ms 3/2+ 240.70 MeV
32Mg 31.998975(19) 86(5) ms 0+ 246.92 MeV
33Mg 33.005254(21) 90.5(16) ms 7/2-# 248.47 MeV
34Mg 34.00946(25) 20(10) ms 0+ 252.83 MeV
35Mg 35.01734(43)# 70(40) ms (7/2-)# 253.45 MeV
36Mg 36.02300(54)# 3.9(13) ms 0+ 255.94 MeV
37Mg 37.03140(97)# 40# ms [>260 ns] 7/2-# 256.57 MeV
38Mg 38.03757(54)# 1# ms [>260 ns] 0+ 259.06 MeV
39Mg 39.04677(55)# <260 ns 7/2-# 258.75 MeV
40Mg 40.05393(97)# 1# ms 0+ 260.31 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie są czysto pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznych trendów. Obrotów dla słabych argumentów przypisania są w nawiasach. 20

Reakcje

2 21
1 22
3 23
3 24
2 25
1 26
1 26
1 27
1 28

Abundancja

Ziemia - : carbonates/sulfates 29
Ziemia - Woda morska: 1290 mg/L 30
Ziemia -  Skorupa Ziemska:  23300 mg/kg = 2.33% 30
Ziemia -  :  16.6% 31
Ziemia -  Litosfera:  2.76% 32
Ziemia -  Hydrosfera:  0.13% 32
Ziemia -  Lączny:  13.90% 33
 -  Lączny:  6.50% 33
Wenus -  Lączny:  14.54% 33
Wszechświat -  Lączny:  0.06% 31
Chondryty - Lączny: 9.4×105 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 34
Ciało Ludzkie - Lączny: 0.027% 35

Związki

Ceny






Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Języki

Afrikaans:   Magnesium
Albanski:   Magnez
Ormiański:   Մագնեզիում
Arabski:   مغنيزيوم
Arumuński:   Magneziumu
Baskijski:   Magnesioa
:   Magnezij
:   Magnesiom
Bułgarski:   Магнезий
Białoruski:   Магній
:   Magnesi
Chiński:   镁
Kornijski:   Magnysyum
Chorwacki:   Magnezij
:   Horcík
Duński:   Magnesium
Niderlandzki:   Magnesium
Esperanto:   Magnezio
Estoński:   Magneesium
Farerski:   Magnesium
Fiński:   Magnesium
:   Magnésium
: Magnesi
:   Magnesium
Galicyjski:   Magnesio
:   მაგნიუმი
:   Magnesium
Grecki:   Μαγνησιο
Hebrajski:   מגנזיום
Węgierski:   Magnézium
:   Magnesín
:   Maignéisiam
:   Magnesio
:   マグネシウム
Kaszubski:   Magnéz
:   Магний
Koreański:   마그네슘
Łotewski:   Magnijs
:   Magnis
:   Magnesium
Macedoński:   Магнезиум
:   Magnesium
Maltański:   Magnizjum
Manx:   Magnaishum
:   Магни
Mongolski:   Магни
:   Magnesium
Oksytański:   Magnčsi
:   Магний
Polski:   Magnez
Portugalski:   Magnésio
Rosyjski:   Магний
Gaelicki Szkocki:   Maignčisiam
:   Магнезиjум
Słowacki:   Horcík
Hiszpański:   Magnesio
Jaćwiński:   Magnijan
Suahili:   Magnesi
Szwedzki:   Magnesium
:   Magni'
:   แมกนีเซียม
:   Magnezyum
Ukraiński:   Магній
Uzbecki:   Магний
Wietnamski:   Magię
Walijski:   Magnesiwm

Zobacz Też

Zobacz Też:

Źródło

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:18.
(2) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 883.
(3) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; pp 883-884.
(4) - Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997; p 884.
(5) - Kotz, Treichel, and Weaver. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 6th ed.:Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, CA, 2006; p 1028.
(6) - Gillespie, Ronald J., Eaton, Donald R., Humphreys, David A., and Robinson, Edward A. Atoms, Molecules, and Reactions; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994; p 604.
(7) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 930.
(8) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 7.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(11) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(13) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(19) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(20) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(21) - 2
(22) - 3
(23) - 3
(24) - 3
(25) - 2
(26) - 1
(27) - 1
(28) - 2
(29) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(30) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(31) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(32) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(33) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(34) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(35) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.