ZELAZO

Wprowadzenie

Liczba Atomowa: 26
Grupa: 8 or VIII B
Względna Masa Atomowa: 55.845
Okresu: 4
Numer CAS: 7439-89-6

Klasyfikacja

Metale
Niemetale
Półmetale
Metale Alkaliczne
Berylowce
Metale Przejściowe
Tlenowce
Fluorowce
Gazy szlachetne
Lantanowce
Aktynowce


Transuranowce
Brak Stabilne Izotopy
Ciało Stałe
Ciecz
Gaz
Ciało Stałe (Przewidywana)

Opis

The use of iron is prehistoric. Genesis mentions that Tubal-Cain, seven generations from Adam, was “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron.”A remarkable iron pillar, dating to about A.D. 400, remains standing today in Delhi, India. This solid shaft of wrought iron is about 7.25 m high by 40cm in diameter. Corrosion to the pillar has been minimal although it has been exposed to the weather since its erection. Iron is a relatively abundantelement in the universe. It is found in the sun and many types of stars in considerable quantity. Its nuclei are very stable. Iron is found native as a principalcomponent of a class of meteorites known as “siderites, and is a minor constituent of the other two classes. The core of the earth, 2150 miles in radius,is thought to be largely composed of iron with about 10% occluded hydrogen. The metal is the fourth most abundant element, by weight, making upthe crust of the earth. The most common ore is hematite (Fe2O3), which is frequently seen as black sands along beaches and banks of streams. Taconiteis becoming increasingly important as a commercial ore. Common iron is a mixture of four isotopes. Ten other isotopes are known to exist. Iron isa vital constituent of plant and animal life, and appears in hemoglobin. The pure metal is not often encountered in commerce, but is usually alloyedwith carbon or other metals. The pure metal is very reactive chemically, and rapidly corrodes, especially in moist air or at elevated temperatures. Ithas four allotropic forms, or ferrites, known as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with transition points at 700, 928, and 1530°C. The alpha form is magnetic, but whentransformed into the beta form, the magnetism disappears although the lattice remains unchanged. The relations of these forms are peculiar. Pig iron isan alloy containing about 3% carbon with varying amounts of S, Si, Mn, and P. It is hard, brittle, fairly fusible, and is used to produce other alloys,including steel. Wrought iron contains only a few tenths of a percent of carbon, is tough, malleable, less fusible, and has usually a “fibrous” structure.Carbon steel is an alloy of iron with carbon, with small amounts of Mn, S, P, and Si. Alloy steels are carbon steels with other additives such as nickel,chromium, vanadium, etc. Iron is the cheapest and most abundant, useful, and important of all metals. Natural iron contains four isotopes and isomers.Twenty one other isotopes and isomers, all radioactive, are now recognized. 1

Używa/Funkcja

•...a small amount of carbon in iron greatly improves its hardness." 2
•hemoglobin, energy metabolism" 3
•Iron, which evidently is the main constituent of the Earth's molten metallic core, is widespread in oxidized forms in igneous rocks; it is extracted from deposits of hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), or goethite [α-FeO(OH)]. Despite the emergence of newer materials, iron and steels remain the sine qua non of the construction, transportation, energy, manufacturing, and packaging industries." 4
•When a mixture of aluminum powder and iron(III) oxide (called thermite) is ignited, it reacts in a spectacular incandescent shower, producing molten iron. The molten iron from the reaction of thermite has been used for welding.

The process for preparing iron from its ores was discovered very early, certainly before the thirteenth century B.C. Perhaps the metal was found in the ashes of a fire built on an outcropping of iron ore, such as hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), or siderite (FeCO3). The ore would have been reduced by charcoal (carbon) at the high temperatures of the fire to yield iron.

Today, iron is produced in a blast furnace by a similar reduction. A mixture of iron ore, coke (carbon produced by heating coal), and limestone is added at the top of the furnace, and a blast of heated air enters at the bottom. Near the bottom of the furnace, the coke burns to carbon dioxide. As the carbon dioxide rises through the heated coke, it is reduced to carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide then reduces the iron ore to metallic iron...Molten iron flows to the bottom of the blast furnace, where it is drawn off. Impurities in the iron ore react with calcium oxide from the limestone to produce a glassy material called slag. Molten slag collects in a layer floating on the molten iron and is drawn off periodically.

Steels are alloys containing over 50% iron and up to about 1.5% carbon. The iron obtained from a blast furnace (called pig iron) contains a number of impurities, including 3% to 4% carbon, that make it brittle. To produce steel, we must remove these impurities and reduce the carbon content of the iron. The basic oxygen process is a method of making steel by blowing oxygen into the molten iron to oxidize impurities and decrease the amount of carbon present. Other metals may be added to the steel to give it desired properties. Stainless steels, for example, contain 12% to 18% chromium and 8% nickel." 5

Właściwości Fizyczne

Temperatura Topnienia:6*  1538 °C = 1811.15 K = 2800.4 °F
Temperatura Wrzenia:6* 2861 °C = 3134.15 K = 5181.8 °F
:6 
Punkt Potrójny:6 
Punkt Krytyczny:6 
Gęstość:7  7.87 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja Elektronowa

Konfiguracja Elektronowa: [Ar] 4s2 3d6
: d
: 4
Elektron Walencyjny: 2

Liczby Kwantowe:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = -2
ms = -½

Wiązania Chemiczne

Elektroujemnoś (Skala Paulinga):8 1.83
Electropositivity (Skala Paulinga): 2.17
Powinowactwo Elektronowe:9 0.151 eV
Stopień Utlenienia: +3,2
Praca Wyjscia:10 4.65 eV = 7.4493E-19 J

Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 7.9024    762.5
2 16.1878    1561.9
3 30.652    2957.5
4 54.8    5287.4
5 75    7236.4
6 99.1    9561.7
7 124.98    12058.7
8 151.06    14575.1
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
8 151.06    14575.1
9 233.6    22539.0
10 262.1    25288.8
11 290.2    28000.0
12 330.8    31917.3
13 361    34831.2
14 392.2    37841.5
15 457    44093.8
16 489.256    47206.0
17 1266    122150.4
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 11  kJ/mol  
18 1358    131027.0
19 1456    140482.6
20 1582    152639.8
21 1689    162963.7
22 1799    173577.1
23 1950    188146.4
24 2023    195189.8
25 8828    851772.3
26 9277.69    895160.8

Termochemia

Pojemnosc Cieplna: 0.449 J/g°C 12 = 25.074 J/mol°C = 0.107 cal/g°C = 5.993 cal/mol°C
: 80.2 (W/m)/K, 27ŗC 13
Ciepło Topnienia: 13.8 kJ/mol 14 = 247.1 J/g
: 349.6 kJ/mol 15 = 6260.2 J/g
Stan Skupienia Materii Standardowa Entalpia Tworzenia Związku Chemicznego (ΔHf°)16  (S°)16 Energią swobodną Gibbsa (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s alpha) 0 0 6.52 27.27968 0 0
(ℓ) 3.138 13.129392 8.195 34.28788 2.641 11.049944

Izotopy

Nuklid  17 Czas Połowicznego Rozpadu 17 Spin 17 Energia Wiązania
45Fe 45.01458(24)# 4.9(15) ms [3.8(+20-8) ms] 3/2+# 321.33 MeV
46Fe 46.00081(38)# 9(4) ms [12(+4-3) ms] 0+ 342.45 MeV
47Fe 46.99289(28)# 21.8(7) ms 7/2-# 357.98 MeV
48Fe 47.98050(8)# 44(7) ms 0+ 377.24 MeV
49Fe 48.97361(16)# 70(3) ms (7/2-) 391.84 MeV
50Fe 49.96299(6) 155(11) ms 0+ 410.16 MeV
51Fe 50.956820(16) 305(5) ms 5/2- 423.83 MeV
52Fe 51.948114(7) 8.275(8) h 0+ 439.36 MeV
53Fe 52.9453079(19) 8.51(2) min 7/2- 450.24 MeV
54Fe 53.9396105(7) Trwałe 0+ 463.91 MeV
55Fe 54.9382934(7) 2.737(11) a 3/2- 472.92 MeV
56Fe 55.9349375(7) Trwałe 0+ 484.72 MeV
57Fe 56.9353940(7) Trwałe 1/2- 491.87 MeV
58Fe 57.9332756(8) Trwałe 0+ 501.81 MeV
59Fe 58.9348755(8) 44.495(9) d 3/2- 508.96 MeV
60Fe 59.934072(4) 1.5(3)E+6 a 0+ 517.04 MeV
61Fe 60.936745(21) 5.98(6) min 3/2-,5/2- 523.25 MeV
62Fe 61.936767(16) 68(2) s 0+ 531.33 MeV
63Fe 62.94037(18) 6.1(6) s (5/2)- 535.68 MeV
64Fe 63.9412(3) 2.0(2) s 0+ 542.83 MeV
65Fe 64.94538(26) 1.3(3) s 1/2-# 547.18 MeV
66Fe 65.94678(32) 440(40) ms 0+ 554.33 MeV
67Fe 66.95095(45) 394(9) ms 1/2-# 558.68 MeV
68Fe 67.95370(75) 187(6) ms 0+ 563.97 MeV
69Fe 68.95878(54)# 109(9) ms 1/2-# 567.39 MeV
70Fe 69.96146(64)# 94(17) ms 0+ 572.67 MeV
71Fe 70.96672(86)# 30# ms [>300 ns] 7/2+# 576.09 MeV
72Fe 71.96962(86)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 581.37 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie są czysto pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznych trendów. Obrotów dla słabych argumentów przypisania są w nawiasach. 17

Reakcje

2 18
2 18
2 18
2 19
3 20
2 21
2 22
4 23
2 24
8 25
4 26
2 27
1 28
1 29
1 30
1 31
1 32
1 33
1 33

Abundancja

Ziemia - : oxides 34
Ziemia - Woda morska: 0.002 mg/L 35
Ziemia -  Skorupa Ziemska:  56300 mg/kg = 5.63% 35
Ziemia -  :  13.3% 36
Ziemia -  Jądro Ziemi:  88.6% 36
Ziemia -  Litosfera:  6.2% 37
Ziemia -  Lączny:  32.07% 38
 -  Lączny:  64.47% 38
Wenus -  Lączny:  31.17% 38
Wszechświat -  Lączny:  0.19% 36
Chondryty - Lączny: 6.9×105 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 39
Ciało Ludzkie - Lączny: 0.006% 40

Związki

NFPA 704 Ratings:
Health: 0 - Poses no health hazard, no precautions necessary.
Flammability: 1 - Must be heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93°C (200°F).
Reactivity: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Języki

Afrikaans:   Yster
Albanski:   Hekur
Ormiański:   Երկաթ
Arabski:   حديد
Arumuński:   Heru
Baskijski:   Burdina
:   Gvožde
:   Houarn
Bułgarski:   Желязо
Białoruski:   Жалеза
:   Ferro
Chiński:   铁
Kornijski:   Horn
Chorwacki:   Željezo
:   Železo
Duński:   Jern
Niderlandzki:   IJzer
Esperanto:   Fero
Estoński:   Raud
Farerski:   Jarn
Fiński:   Rauta
:   Fer
: Fier
:   Izer
Galicyjski:   Ferro
:   რკინა
:   Eisen
Grecki:   Σιδηρος
Hebrajski:   ברזל
Węgierski:   Vas
:   Jįrn
:   Iarann
:   Ferro
:   鉄
Kaszubski:   Zelazlo
:   Темір
Koreański:   철
Łotewski:   Dzelzs
:   Geležis
:   Eisen
Macedoński:   Железо
:   Ferum, Besi
Maltański:   Hadid
Manx:   Yiarn
:   Кишни, Кшни
Mongolski:   Төмөр
:   Jern
Oksytański:   Fčrre
:   Ęфсęйнаг
Polski:   Zelazo
Portugalski:   Ferro
Rosyjski:   Железо
Gaelicki Szkocki:   Iarann (Iarrnaig)
:   Гвож
Słowacki:   Železo
Hiszpański:   Hierro
Jaćwiński:   Gelza
Suahili:   Feri
Szwedzki:   Järn
:   Ohan
:   เหล็ก
:   Demir
Ukraiński:   Залізо
Uzbecki:   Темир
Wietnamski:   Sa“t
Walijski:   Haearn

Zobacz Też

Zobacz Też:

Źródło

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(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 906.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926.
(4) - Swaddle, T.W. Inorganic Chemistry; Academic Press: San Diego, 1997; p 7.
(5) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 670, 736-737.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(10) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(16) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
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(31) - 1
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(36) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(37) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(38) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
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