ZLOTO

Wprowadzenie

Liczba Atomowa: 79
Grupa: 11 or I B
Względna Masa Atomowa: 196.96655
Okresu: 6
Numer CAS: 7440-57-5

Klasyfikacja

Metale
Niemetale
Półmetale
Metale Alkaliczne
Berylowce
Metale Przejściowe
Tlenowce
Fluorowce
Gazy szlachetne
Lantanowce
Aktynowce


Transuranowce
Brak Stabilne Izotopy
Ciało Stałe
Ciecz
Gaz
Ciało Stałe (Przewidywana)

Opis

Known and highly valued from earliest times, gold is found in nature as the free metal and in tellurides; it is very widelydistributed and is almost always associated with quartz or pyrite. It occurs in veins and alluvial deposits, and is often separated from rocks and otherminerals by sluicing and panning operations. About two thirds of the world’s gold output comes from South Africa, and about two thirds of the totalU.S. production comes from South Dakota and Nevada. The metal is recovered from its ores by cyaniding, amalgamating, and smelting processes.Refining is also frequently done by electrolysis. Gold occurs in sea water to the extent of 0.1 to 2 mg/ton, depending on the location where the sampleis taken. As yet, no method has been found for recovering gold from sea water profitably. It is estimated that all the gold in the world, so far refined,could be placed in a single cube 60 ft on a side. Of all the elements, gold in its pure state is undoubtedly the most beautiful. It is metallic, having a yellowcolor when in a mass, but when finely divided it may be black, ruby, or purple. The Purple of Cassius is a delicate test for auric gold. It is the mostmalleable and ductile metal; 1 oz. of gold can be beaten out to 300 sq ft. It is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength. It is a good conductorof heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is used in coinage and is a standard for monetary systems in many countries. Itis also extensively used for jewelry, decoration, dental work, and for plating. It is used for coating certain space satellites, as it is a good reflector ofinfrared and is inert. Gold, like other precious metals, is measured in troy weight; when alloyed with other metals, the term carat is used to expressthe amount of gold present, 24 carats being pure gold. For many years the value of gold was set by the U.S. at $20.67/troy ounce; in 1934 this valuewas fixed by law at $35.00/troy ounce, 9/10th fine. On March 17, 1968, because of a gold crisis, a two-tiered pricing system was established wherebygold was still used to settle international accounts at the old $35.00/troy ounce price while the price of gold on the private market would be allowedto fluctuate. Since this time, the price of gold on the free market has fluctuated widely. The price of gold on the free market reached a price of $620/troy oz. in January 1980. The most common gold compounds are auric chloride (AuCl3) and chlorauric acid (HAuCl4), the latter being used inphotography for toning the silver image. Gold has forty six recognized isotopes and isomers; 198Au, with a half-life of 2.7 days, is used for treatingcancer and other diseases. Disodium aurothiomalate is administered intramuscularly as a treatment for arthritis. A mixture of one part nitric acid withthree of hydrochloric acid is called aqua regia (because it dissolved gold, the King of Metals). Gold is available commercially with a purity of99.999+%. For many years the temperature assigned to the freezing point of gold has been 1063.0°C; this has served as a calibration point for theInternational Temperature Scales (ITS-27 and ITS-48) and the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-48). In 1968, a new InternationalPractical Temperature Scale (IPTS-68) was adopted, which demanded that the freezing point of gold be changed to 1064.43°C. In 1990 a newInternational Temperature Scale (ITS-90) was adopted bringing the t.p. (triple point) of H2O (t90 (°C)) to 0.01°C and the freezing point of gold to1064.18°C.The specific gravity of gold has been found to vary considerably depending on temperature, how the metal is precipitated, and cold-worked.As of January 1996, gold was priced at about $390/troy oz. ($12.50/g). 1

Używa/Funkcja

•In manuf[acturing] jewelry; in gold plating other metals; as a standard of currency; most frequently alloyed with silver and copper." 2
•...gold and silver have been used as free metals since prehistoric times." 3
•Pure gold, the most malleable of metals, is too soft to be used alone for most purposes. As gold leaf it is used for lettering and various decorative purposes. It is allyed with silver or copper. The proportion of gold in alloys is indicated by the number of carats fineness. Pure gold is 24 carats fine; 18-carat gold contains 18 parts by weight of gold and 6 parts of other metal. This carat should be distinguished from the carat used in weighing gems, which has been standardized at a weight of 200 milligrams. Our gold coins are 90 per cent gold and 10 per cent copper. Articles are gold-plated by an electroplating process, using as electrolyte a solution of the cyanide of potassium and gold. On gold-plated objects the outside layer is pure gold. Extremely thin coats, obtained by electrical deposition in a vacuum, are often used in plating." 4

Właściwości Fizyczne

Temperatura Topnienia:5*  1064.18 °C = 1337.33 K = 1947.524 °F
Temperatura Wrzenia:5* 2856 °C = 3129.15 K = 5172.8 °F
:5 
Punkt Potrójny:5 
Punkt Krytyczny:5 
Gęstość:6  19.3 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Konfiguracja Elektronowa

Konfiguracja Elektronowa: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d9
: d
: 6
Elektron Walencyjny: 2

Liczby Kwantowe:

n = 5
ℓ = 2
m = 1
ms = -˝

Wiązania Chemiczne

Elektroujemnoś (Skala Paulinga):7 2.4
Electropositivity (Skala Paulinga): 1.6
Powinowactwo Elektronowe:8 2.30863 eV
Stopień Utlenienia: +3,1
Praca Wyjscia:9 5.32 eV = 8.52264E-19 J

Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 10  kJ/mol  
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 10  kJ/mol  
0 2.4    231.6
1 9.2255    890.1
Potencjał Jonizacyjny   eV 10  kJ/mol  
2 20.5    1977.9

Termochemia

Pojemnosc Cieplna: 0.129 J/g°C 11 = 25.409 J/mol°C = 0.031 cal/g°C = 6.073 cal/mol°C
: 317 (W/m)/K, 27şC 12
Ciepło Topnienia: 12.55 kJ/mol 13 = 63.7 J/g
: 334.4 kJ/mol 14 = 1697.8 J/g
Stan Skupienia Materii Standardowa Entalpia Tworzenia Związku Chemicznego (ΔHf°)15  (S°)15 Energią swobodną Gibbsa (ΔGf°)15
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 11.33 47.40472 0 0
(g) 87.5 366.1 43.115 180.39316 78.0 326.352

Izotopy

Nuklid  16 Czas Połowicznego Rozpadu 16 Spin 16 Energia Wiązania
169Au 168.99808(32)# 150# µs 1/2+# 1,285.98 MeV
170Au 169.99612(22)# 310(50) µs [286(+50-40) µs] (2-) 1,294.05 MeV
171Au 170.991879(28) 17 µs (1/2+) 1,302.13 MeV
172Au 171.99004(17)# 6.3 ms high 1,310.21 MeV
173Au 172.986237(28) 20 ms (1/2+) 1,327.61 MeV
174Au 173.98476(11)# 120 ms low 1,335.68 MeV
175Au 174.98127(5) 185 ms 1/2+# 1,343.76 MeV
176Au 175.98010(11)# 1.08(17) s [0.84(+17-14) s] (5-) 1,351.84 MeV
177Au 176.976865(14) 1.462(32) s (1/2+,3/2+) 1,369.24 MeV
178Au 177.97603(6) 2.6(5) s 1,377.32 MeV
179Au 178.973213(18) 3.3 s 5/2-# 1,385.39 MeV
180Au 179.972521(23) 8.1(3) s 1,393.47 MeV
181Au 180.970079(21) 13.7(14) s (3/2-) 1,401.55 MeV
182Au 181.969618(22) 15.5(5) s (2+) 1,418.95 MeV
183Au 182.967593(11) 42.8(10) s (5/2)- 1,427.03 MeV
184Au 183.967452(24) 20.6(9) s 5+ 1,435.10 MeV
185Au 184.965789(28) 4.25(6) min 5/2- 1,443.18 MeV
186Au 185.965953(23) 10.7(5) min 3- 1,451.26 MeV
187Au 186.964568(27) 8.4(3) min 1/2+ 1,459.34 MeV
188Au 187.965324(22) 8.84(6) min 1(-) 1,467.42 MeV
189Au 188.963948(22) 28.7(3) min 1/2+ 1,475.50 MeV
190Au 189.964700(17) 42.8(10) min 1- 1,483.58 MeV
191Au 190.96370(4) 3.18(8) h 3/2+ 1,491.66 MeV
192Au 191.964813(17) 4.94(9) h 1- 1,499.73 MeV
193Au 192.964150(11) 17.65(15) h 3/2+ 1,507.81 MeV
194Au 193.965365(11) 38.02(10) h 1- 1,515.89 MeV
195Au 194.9650346(14) 186.098(47) d 3/2+ 1,523.97 MeV
196Au 195.966570(3) 6.1669(6) d 2- 1,532.05 MeV
197Au 196.9665687(6) Trwałe 3/2+ 1,540.13 MeV
198Au 197.9682423(6) 2.69517(21) d 2- 1,548.21 MeV
199Au 198.9687652(6) 3.139(7) d 3/2+ 1,556.28 MeV
200Au 199.97073(5) 48.4(3) min 1(-) 1,555.05 MeV
201Au 200.971657(3) 26(1) min 3/2+ 1,563.13 MeV
202Au 201.97381(18) 28.8(19) s (1-) 1,571.20 MeV
203Au 202.975155(3) 53(2) s 3/2+ 1,579.28 MeV
204Au 203.97772(22)# 39.8(9) s (2-) 1,587.36 MeV
205Au 204.97987(32)# 31(2) s 3/2+ 1,595.44 MeV
Wartości oznaczone # nie są czysto pochodzą z danych doświadczalnych, ale przynajmniej częściowo z systematycznych trendów. Obrotów dla słabych argumentów przypisania są w nawiasach. 16

Abundancja

Ziemia - : uncombined 17
Ziemia - Woda morska: 0.004 mg/L 18
Ziemia -  Skorupa Ziemska:  0.004 mg/kg = 0.0000004% 18
Ziemia -  Lączny:  257 ppb 19
 -  Lączny:  516 ppm 19
Wenus -  Lączny:  250 ppb 19
Chondryty - Lączny: 0.18 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20
Ciało Ludzkie - Lączny: 0.00001% 21

Związki

Ceny






Karta Charakterystyki - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Języki

Afrikaans:   Goud
Albanski:   Ar
Ormiański:   Ոսկի
Arabski:   ذهب
Arumuński:   Amalămă
Baskijski:   Urrea
:   Zlato
:   Aour
Bułgarski:   Злато
Białoruski:   Золата
:   Or
Chiński:   金
Kornijski:   Owr
Chorwacki:   Zlato
:   Zlato
Duński:   Guld
Niderlandzki:   Goud
Esperanto:   Oro
Estoński:   Kuld
Farerski:   Gull
Fiński:   Kulta
:   Or
: Aur
:   Goud
Galicyjski:   Ouro
:   ოქრო
:   Gold
Grecki:   Χρυσος
Hebrajski:   זהב
Węgierski:   Arany
:   Gull
:   Ór
:   Oro
:   金
Kaszubski:   Zloto
:   Алтын
Koreański:   금
Łotewski:   Zelts
:   Auksas
:   Gold
Macedoński:   Злато
:   Aurum, Emas
Maltański:   Deheb
Manx:   Airh
:   Сирнае, Зрня
Mongolski:   Алт, Алтан
:   Gull
Oksytański:   Aur
:   Сызгъćрин
Polski:   Zloto
Portugalski:   Ouro
Rosyjski:   Золото
Gaelicki Szkocki:   Ňr
:   Злато
Słowacki:   Zlato
Hiszpański:   Oro
Jaćwiński:   Ausas
Suahili:   Auri
Szwedzki:   Guld
:   Tillo
:   ทองคำ
:   Altin
Ukraiński:   Золото
Uzbecki:   Олтин
Wietnamski:   Vŕng
Walijski:   Aur

Zobacz Też

Zobacz Też:

:
(1) Moyer, Michael. How Much is Left?. Scientific American, September 2010, pp 74-81.

Źródło

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:13-4:14.
(2) - The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 13th ed.; Budavari, S.; O'Neil, M.J.; Smith, A.; Heckelman, P. E.; Kinneary, J. F., Eds.; Merck & Co.: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2001; entry 4529.
(3) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 905.
(4) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 543-4.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(7) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(9) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(15) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(16) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(17) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(18) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(21) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.