VANADIO

Introducción

Número Atómico: 23
Grupo: 5 or V B
Peso Atómico: 50.9415
Periodo: 4
Número CAS: 7440-62-2

Clasificación

Anfígeno
Halógeno
Gases nobles
Lantánido
Actínido

Platino Metal Grupo
Transuránicos
No Isótopos Estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicción)

Descripción

Vanadium was first discovered by del Rio in 1801. Unfortunately, a French chemist incorrectly declared del Rio’s new element was onlyimpure chromium; del Rio thought himself to be mistaken and accepted the French chemist’s statement. The element was rediscovered in 1830 bySefstrom, who named the element in honor of the Scandinavian goddess Vanadis because of its beautiful multicolored compounds. It was isolated innearly pure form by Roscoe, in 1867, who reduced the chloride with hydrogen. Vanadium of 99.3 to 99.8% purity was not produced until 1927.Vanadium is found in about 65 different minerals among which are carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite, and patronite important sources of the metal.Vanadium is also found in phosphate rock and certain iron ores, and is present in some crude oils in the form of organic complexes. It is also foundin small percentages in meteorites. Commercial production from petroleum ash holds promise as an important source of the element. High-purityductile vanadium can be obtained by reduction of vanadium trichloride with magnesium or with magnesium-sodium mixtures. Much of the vanadiummetal being produced is now made by calcium reduction of V2O5 in a pressure vessel, an adaption of a process developed by McKechnie and Seybolt.Natural vanadium is a mixture of two isotopes, 50V (0.25%) and 51V (99.75%). 50V is slightly radioactive, having a long half-life. Seventeen otherunstable isotopes are recognized. Pure vanadium is a bright white metal, and is soft and ductile. It has good corrosion resistance to alkalis, sulfuricand hydrochloric acid, and salt water, but the metal oxidizes readily above 660°C. The metal has good structural strength and a low fission neutroncross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Vanadium is used in producing rust resistant, spring, and highspeed tool steels. It is an importantcarbide stabilizer in making steels. About 80% of the vanadium now produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Vanadium foil is usedas a bonding agent in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst. It is also used in producing a superconductivemagnet with a field of 175,000 gauss. Vanadium and its compounds are toxic and should be handled with care. Ductile vanadium is commerciallyavailable. Commercial vanadium metal, of about 95% purity, costs about $50kg. Vanadium metal (99.7%) costs about $1.50/g or $700/kg. 1

Usos/Funciones

•Vanadium gives steel the ability to resist breakage under heavy shocks, and permits steel springs to be bent countless times without losing their elasticity." 2
•A number of transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) form interstitial carbides of composition MC and, in some cases, M2C. These carbides have extremely high melting points; they are very hard, and they are good electrical conductors." 3

Magnitudes Físicas

Punto de Fusión:4*  1910 °C = 2183.15 K = 3470 °F
Punto de Ebullición:4* 3407 °C = 3680.15 K = 6164.6 °F
Punto de Sublimación:4 
Punto Triple:4 
Punto Crítico:4 
Densidad:5  6.0 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración Electrónica

Configuración Electrónica: [Ar] 4s2 3d3
Bloque: d
Nivel Más Alto de Energía Ocupados: 4
Electrones de Valencia: 2

Números Cuánticos:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = +½

Enlace Químico

Electronegatividad (Escala de Pauling):6 1.63
Electropositivity (Escala de Pauling): 2.37
Afinidad Electrónica:7 0.525 eV
Estados de Oxidación: +5,2,3,4
Función de Trabajo:8 4.44 eV = 7.11288E-19 J

Energía de Ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 6.7462    650.9
2 14.66    1414.5
3 29.311    2828.1
4 46.709    4506.7
5 65.2817    6298.7
6 128.13    12362.7
7 150.6    14530.7
Energía de Ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
7 150.6    14530.7
8 173.4    16730.6
9 205.8    19856.7
10 230.5    22239.9
11 255.7    24671.3
12 308.1    29727.1
13 336.277    32445.8
14 896    86450.8
15 976    94169.7
Energía de Ionización   eV 9  kJ/mol  
16 1060    102274.4
17 1168    112694.8
18 1260    121571.5
19 1355    130737.6
20 1486    143377.2
21 1569.6    151443.3
22 6851.3    661049.8
23 7246.12    699144.1

Termoquímica

Capacidad Calorífica: 0.489 J/g°C 10 = 24.910 J/mol°C = 0.117 cal/g°C = 5.954 cal/mol°C
Conductividad Térmica: 30.7 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 11
Entalpía de Fusión: 20.9 kJ/mol 12 = 410.3 J/g
Entalpía de Vaporización: 0.452 kJ/mol 13 = 8.9 J/g
Estado de Agregación de la Materia Entalpía de Formación (ΔHf°)14 Entropía (S°)14 Energía Libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 6.91 28.91144 0 0
(g) 122.90 514.2136 43.544 182.188096 108.32 453.21088

Isótopos

Nucleido Masa 15 Periodo de Semidesintegración 15 Espín 15 Energía de enlace nuclear
40V 40.01109(54)# 2-# 287.09 MeV
41V 40.99978(22)# 7/2-# 306.35 MeV
42V 41.99123(21)# <55 ns 2-# 321.88 MeV
43V 42.98065(25)# 80# ms 7/2-# 340.21 MeV
44V 43.97411(13) 111(7) ms (2+) 353.88 MeV
45V 44.965776(18) 547(6) ms 7/2- 370.34 MeV
46V 45.9602005(11) 422.50(11) ms 0+ 383.08 MeV
47V 46.9549089(9) 32.6(3) min 3/2- 396.75 MeV
48V 47.9522537(27) 15.9735(25) d 4+ 406.69 MeV
49V 48.9485161(12) 329(3) d 7/2- 418.49 MeV
50V 49.9471585(11) 1.4(4)E17 a 6+ 427.50 MeV
51V 50.9439595(11) ESTABLE 7/2- 439.31 MeV
52V 51.9447755(11) 3.743(5) min 3+ 446.46 MeV
53V 52.944338(3) 1.60(4) min 7/2- 454.54 MeV
54V 53.946440(16) 49.8(5) s 3+ 460.75 MeV
55V 54.94723(11) 6.54(15) s (7/2-)# 467.90 MeV
56V 55.95053(22) 216(4) ms (1+) 473.18 MeV
57V 56.95256(25) 0.35(1) s (3/2-) 479.40 MeV
58V 57.95683(27) 191(8) ms 3+# 483.75 MeV
59V 58.96021(33) 75(7) ms 7/2-# 488.10 MeV
60V 59.96503(51) 122(18) ms 3+# 491.52 MeV
61V 60.96848(43)# 47.0(12) ms 7/2-# 496.81 MeV
62V 61.97378(54)# 33.5(20) ms 3+# 500.23 MeV
63V 62.97755(64)# 17(3) ms (7/2-)# 504.58 MeV
64V 63.98347(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns] 507.07 MeV
65V 64.98792(86)# 10# ms 5/2-# 511.42 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no se derivan exclusivamente de datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Tiradas con argumentos de asignación débiles están encerrados entre paréntesis. 15

Abundancia

Tierra - Fuente Compuestos: oxides 16
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.0025 mg/L 17
Tierra -  Corteza:  120 mg/kg = 0.012% 17
Tierra -  Litosfera:  0.014% 18
Tierra -  Total:  82 ppm 19
Mercurio -  Total:  63 ppm 19
Venus -  Total:  86 ppm 19
Condritas - Total: 200 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 20

Compuestos

Información Sobre Seguridad


Ficha de Datos de Seguridad - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Idiomas

Afrikáans:   Vanadium
Albanés:   Vanad
Armenio:   Վանադիում
Árabe:   فانديوم
Arumano:   Vanadiumu
Euskera:   Banadioa
Bosnio:   Vanadij
Bretón:   Vanadiom
Búlgaro:   Ванадий
Bielorruso:   Ванадый
Catalán:   Vanadi
Chino:   钒
Córnico:   Vanadyum
Croata:   Vanadij
Checo:   Vanad
Danés:   Vanadium
Neerlandés:   Vanadium
Esperanto:   Vanadio
Estonio:   Vanaadium
Feroés:   Vanadium
Finés:   Vanadiini
Francés:   Vanadium
Friulano: Vanadi
Frisio:   Vanadium
Gallego:   Vanadio
Georgiano:   ვანდიუმი
Alemán:   Vanadium
Griego:   Βαναdιο
Hebreo:   ונדיום
Húngaro:   Vanádium
Islandés:   Vanadín
Irlandés:   Vanaidiam
Italiano:   Vanadio
Japonés:   バナジウム
Casubio:   Wônôd
Kazajo:   Ванадий
Coreano:   바나듐
Letónico:   Vanadijs
Lituano:   Vanadis
Luxemburgués:   Vanadium
Macedonio:   Ванадиум
Malayo:   Vanadium
Maltés:   Vanadjum
Manés:   Vanaadjum
Moksha:   Ванади
Mongol:   Ванади
Noruego:   Vanadium
Occitano:   Vanadi
Osetio:   Ванадий
Polaco:   Wanad
Portugués:   Vanádio
Ruso:   Ванадий
Gaélico Escocés:   Vanaidiam
Serbio:   Ванадиjум
Eslovaco:   Vanád
Español:   Vanadio
:   Unadijan
Suajili:   Vanadi
Sueco:   Vanadin
Tayiko:   Vanadi'
Tailandés:   วาเนเดียม
Turco:   Vanadyum
Ucraniano:   Ванадій
Uzbeko:   Ванадий
Vietnamita:   Vanadi
Galés:   Vanadiwm

Véase También

Enlaces Externos:

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:34.
(2) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 560.
(3) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 119.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(19) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(20) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.