TÁLIO

Introdução

Número Atómico: 81
Grupo: 13 or III A
Massa Atômica: 204.3833
Período: 6
Registro CAS: 7440-28-0

Classificação

Calcogênio
Halogênio
Gás nobre
Lantanídeo
Actinídeo
Terra-Rara

Transurânico
Não Isótopos Estáveis
Sólido
Líquido
Gás
Sólido (Provavelmente)

Descrição

Thallium was discovered spectroscopically in 1861 by Crookes. The element was named after the beautiful green spectral line, which identifiedthe element. The metal was isolated both by Crookes and Lamy in 1862 about the same time. Thallium occurs in crooksite, lorandite, and hutchinsonite.It is also present in pyrites and is recovered from the roasting of this ore in connection with the production of sulfuric acid. It is also obtained fromthe smelting of lead and zinc ores. Extraction is somewhat complex and depends on the source of the thallium. Manganese nodules, found on the oceanfloor, contain thallium. When freshly exposed to air, thallium exhibits a metallic luster, but soon develops a bluish-gray tinge, resembling lead inappearance. A heavy oxide builds up on thallium if left in air, and in the presence of water the hydroxide is formed. The metal is very soft and malleable.It can be cut with a knife. forty seven isotopic forms of thallium, with atomic masses ranging from 179 to 210 are recognized. Natural thallium is amixture of two isotopes. The element and its compounds are toxic and should be handled carefully. Contact of the metal with skin is dangerous, andwhen melting the metal adequate ventilation should be provided. Thallium is suspected of carcinogenic potential for man. Thallium sulfate has beenwidely employed as a rodenticide and ant killer. It is odorless and tasteless, giving no warning of its presence. Its use, however, has been prohibitedin the U.S. since 1975 as a household insecticide and rodenticide. The electrical conductivity of thallium sulfide changes with exposure to infraredlight, and this compound is used in photocells. Thallium bromide-iodide crystals have been used as infrared optical materials. Thallium has been used,with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, to produce low melting glasses which become fluid between 125 and 150°C. These glasses have properties at roomtemperatures similar to ordinary glasses and are said to be durable and insoluble in water. Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a highindex of refraction. Thallium has been used in treating ringworm and other skin infections; however, its use has been limited because of the narrowmargin between toxicity and therapeutic benefits. A mercury-thallium alloy, which forms a eutectic at 8.5% thallium, is reported to freeze at –60°C,some 20° below the freezing point of mercury. Thallium metal (99.999%) costs about $1/g. 1

Usa/Função

•has no practical uses as a free metal." 2

Propriedades Físicas

Ponto de Fusão:3*  304 °C = 577.15 K = 579.2 °F
Ponto de Ebulição:3* 1473 °C = 1746.15 K = 2683.4 °F
:3 
Ponto Triplo:3 
Ponto Crítico:3 
Densidade:4  11.8 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuração Electrónica

Configuração Electrónica: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p1
Bloco: p
: 6
Eletrão de Valência: 3

Números Quânticos:

n = 6
ℓ = 1
m = -1
ms = +½

Ligações Químicas

Eletronegatividade (Escala de Pauling):5 1.8
Electropositivity (Escala de Pauling): 2.2
Afinidade Eletrônica:6 0.2 eV
Estados de Oxidação: +1,3
Função Trabalho:7 4.02 eV = 6.44004E-19 J

Potencial de Ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 6.1082    589.4
Potencial de Ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
1 6.1082    589.4
2 20.428    1971.0
Potencial de Ionização   eV 8  kJ/mol  
3 29.83    2878.2

Termoquímica

Capacidade Térmica: 0.129 J/g°C 9 = 26.365 J/mol°C = 0.031 cal/g°C = 6.301 cal/mol°C
: 46.1 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 10
Calor de Fusão: 4.142 kJ/mol 11 = 20.3 J/g
: 164.1 kJ/mol 12 = 802.9 J/g
Entalpia Padrão de Formação (ΔHf°)13  (S°)13 Energia livre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)13
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 15.34 64.18256 0 0
(g) 43.55 182.2132 43.225 180.8534 35.24 147.44416

Isótopos

Nuclídeo Massa 14 Meia-Vida 14 Spin 14
176Tl 176.00059(21)# 5.2(+30-14) ms (3-,4-,5-) 1,330.97 MeV
177Tl 176.996427(27) 18(5) ms (1/2+) 1,348.36 MeV
178Tl 177.99490(12)# 255(10) ms 1,356.44 MeV
179Tl 178.99109(5) 270(30) ms (1/2+) 1,364.52 MeV
180Tl 179.98991(13)# 1.5(2) s 1,381.91 MeV
181Tl 180.986257(10) 3.2(3) s 1/2+# 1,389.99 MeV
182Tl 181.98567(8) 2.0(3) s 2-# 1,398.07 MeV
183Tl 182.982193(10) 6.9(7) s 1/2+# 1,406.15 MeV
184Tl 183.98187(5) 9.7(6) s 2-# 1,414.23 MeV
185Tl 184.97879(6) 19.5(5) s 1/2+# 1,431.62 MeV
186Tl 185.97833(20) 40# s (2-) 1,439.70 MeV
187Tl 186.975906(9) ~51 s (1/2+) 1,447.78 MeV
188Tl 187.97601(4) 71(2) s (2-) 1,455.86 MeV
189Tl 188.973588(12) 2.3(2) min (1/2+) 1,463.94 MeV
190Tl 189.97388(5) 2.6(3) min 2(-) 1,472.02 MeV
191Tl 190.971786(8) 20# min (1/2+) 1,480.09 MeV
192Tl 191.97223(3) 9.6(4) min (2-) 1,488.17 MeV
193Tl 192.97067(12) 21.6(8) min 1/2(+#) 1,496.25 MeV
194Tl 193.97120(15) 33.0(5) min 2- 1,504.33 MeV
195Tl 194.969774(15) 1.16(5) h 1/2+ 1,521.73 MeV
196Tl 195.970481(13) 1.84(3) h 2- 1,520.49 MeV
197Tl 196.969575(18) 2.84(4) h 1/2+ 1,537.88 MeV
198Tl 197.97048(9) 5.3(5) h 2- 1,536.65 MeV
199Tl 198.96988(3) 7.42(8) h 1/2+ 1,554.04 MeV
200Tl 199.970963(6) 26.1(1) h 2- 1,552.80 MeV
201Tl 200.970819(16) 72.912(17) h 1/2+ 1,560.88 MeV
202Tl 201.972106(16) 12.23(2) d 2- 1,568.96 MeV
203Tl 202.9723442(14) 1/2+ 1,577.04 MeV
204Tl 203.9738635(13) 3.78(2) a 2- 1,585.12 MeV
205Tl 204.9744275(14) 1/2+ 1,593.20 MeV
206Tl 205.9761103(15) 4.200(17) min 0- 1,601.28 MeV
207Tl 206.977419(6) 4.77(2) min 1/2+ 1,609.35 MeV
208Tl 207.9820187(21) 3.053(4) min 5(+) 1,608.12 MeV
209Tl 208.985359(8) 2.161(7) min (1/2+) 1,616.20 MeV
210Tl 209.990074(12) 1.30(3) min (5+)# 1,614.96 MeV
211Tl 210.99348(22)# 1# min [>300 ns] 1/2+# 1,623.04 MeV
212Tl 211.99823(32)# 30# s [>300 ns] 5+# 1,631.11 MeV
# Os valores marcados não são puramente derivada de dados experimentais, mas pelo menos em parte, das tendências sistemáticas. Rodadas com argumentos fracos de atribuição estão entre parênteses. 14

Abundância

Terra - : sulfides 15
Terra - Água do mar: 0.000019 mg/L 16
Terra -  Crosta:  0.85 mg/kg = 0.000085% 16
Terra -  Completo:  3.86 ppb 17
 -  Completo:  0.044 ppb 17
Vénus -  Completo:  4.05 ppb 17
Condritos - Completo: 0.001 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

Compostos


Ficha de Dados de Segurança de Material - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Línguas

Africâner:   Tallium
Albanesa:   Talium
Arménia:   Թալիում
Árabe:   ثاليوم
Arromena:   Taliumu
Basca:   Talioa
:   Talij
:   Taliom
Búlgara:   Таллий
Bielorrussa:   Талій
:   Tal·li
Chinês:   铊
Córnica:   Thalyum
Croata:   Talij
:   Thallium
Dinamarquesa:   Thallium
Neerlandesa:   Thallium
Esperanto:   Talio
Estoniano:   Tallium
Feroesa:   Thallium
Finlandesa:   Tallium
:   Thallium
: Tali
:   Thallium
Galega:   Talio
:   თალიუმი
:   Thallium
Grega:   Θαλλιο
Hebraica:   תליום
Húngara:   Tallium
:   Þallín
:   Tailliam
:   Tallio
:   タリウム
Cassúbia:   Tôl
:   Таллий
Coreana:   탈륨
Letão:   Tallijs
:   Talis
:   Thallium
Macedônia:   Талиум
:   Talium
Maltesa:   Talljum
Manesa:   Thallium
:   Тали
:   Талли
:   Thallium
Occitano:   Talli
Osseto:   Таллий
Polaca:   Tal
Portuguesa:   Tálio
Russa:   Таллий
Gaélica Escocesa:   Tailliam
:   Талиjум
Eslovaca:   Tálium
Castelhana:   Talio
Sudóvio:   Talijan
Suaíli:   Tali
Sueca:   Tallium
:   Talli'
:   แทลเลียม
:   Talyum
Ucraniano:   Талій
Uzbeque:   Таллий
Vietnamita:   Tali
Galês:   Thaliwm

Ver Também

Ligações Externas:

Fontes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:31.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 933.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(5) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(7) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(13) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(14) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.