NÍQUEL

Introdução

Número Atómico: 28
Grupo: 10 or VIII B
Massa Atômica: 58.6934
Período: 4
Registro CAS: 7440-02-0

Classificação

Calcogênio
Halogênio
Gás nobre
Lantanídeo
Actinídeo
Terra-Rara

Transurânico
Não Isótopos Estáveis
Sólido
Líquido
Gás
Sólido (Provavelmente)

Descrição

Discovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteoritesand often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed withfrom 5 to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario, a district that producesmuch of the world’s nickel. It is now thought that the Sudbury deposit is the result of an ancient meteorite impact. Other deposits of nickel are foundin Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, Indonesia, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile,somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloysit forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys such as Invar(R), Monel(R), Inconel(R), and the Hastelloys(R).Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also nowused extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome®, Permalloy®, andconstantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely dividednickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in the Edison® storagebattery. The sulfate and the oxides are important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes; nineteen other unstable isotopes areknown. Nickel sulfide fume and dust is recognized as having carcinogenic potential. Nickel metal (99.9%) is priced at about $100/kg or less in largerquantities. 1

Usa/Função

•Stainless steels show high tensile strength and excellent resistance to corrosion. The most common kind contains 14-18% chromium and 7-9% nickel." 2
•Miners of nickel ore have a high rate of nasal cancer." 3

Propriedades Físicas

Ponto de Fusão:4*  1455 °C = 1728.15 K = 2651 °F
Ponto de Ebulição:4* 2913 °C = 3186.15 K = 5275.4 °F
:4 
Ponto Triplo:4 
Ponto Crítico:4 
Densidade:5  8.90 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuração Electrónica

Configuração Electrónica: [Ar] 4s2 3d8
: d
: 4
: 2

Números Quânticos:

n = 3
ℓ = 2
m = 0
ms = -½

Ligações Químicas

Eletronegatividade (Escala de Pauling):6 1.91
Electropositivity (Escala de Pauling): 2.09
Afinidade Eletrônica:7 1.156 eV
Estados de Oxidação: +2,3
Função Trabalho:8 5.15 eV = 8.2503E-19 J

Potencial de Ionização   eV 9  kJ/mol  
1 7.6398    737.1
2 18.16884    1753.0
3 35.19    3395.3
4 54.9    5297.0
5 76.06    7338.7
6 108    10420.4
7 133    12832.5
8 162    15630.6
9 193    18621.7
Potencial de Ionização   eV 9  kJ/mol  
9 193    18621.7
10 224.6    21670.6
11 321    30971.8
12 352    33962.8
13 384    37050.4
14 430    41488.7
15 464    44769.2
16 499    48146.2
17 571.08    55100.8
18 607.06    58572.4
Potencial de Ionização   eV 9  kJ/mol  
19 1541    148683.9
20 1648    159007.8
21 1756    169428.2
22 1894    182743.2
23 2011    194032.0
24 2131    205610.2
25 2295    221433.8
26 2399.2    231487.6
27 10288.8    992718.0
28 10775.4    1039667.8

Termoquímica

Capacidade Térmica: 0.444 J/g°C 10 = 26.060 J/mol°C = 0.106 cal/g°C = 6.228 cal/mol°C
: 90.7 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 11
Calor de Fusão: 17.47 kJ/mol 12 = 297.6 J/g
: 370.4 kJ/mol 13 = 6310.8 J/g
Entalpia Padrão de Formação (ΔHf°)14  (S°)14 Energia livre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)14
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 7.14 29.87376 0 0
(g) 102.7 429.6968 43.519 182.083496 91.9 384.5096

Isótopos

Nuclídeo Massa 15 Meia-Vida 15 Spin 15
48Ni 48.01975(54)# 10# ms [>500 ns] 0+ 338.66 MeV
49Ni 49.00966(43)# 13(4) ms [12(+5-3) ms] 7/2-# 356.05 MeV
50Ni 49.99593(28)# 9.1(18) ms 0+ 377.18 MeV
51Ni 50.98772(28)# 30# ms [>200 ns] 7/2-# 392.71 MeV
52Ni 51.97568(9)# 38(5) ms 0+ 411.97 MeV
53Ni 52.96847(17)# 45(15) ms (7/2-)# 426.57 MeV
54Ni 53.95791(5) 104(7) ms 0+ 444.89 MeV
55Ni 54.951330(12) 204.7(17) ms 7/2- 458.56 MeV
56Ni 55.942132(12) 6.075(10) d 0+ 475.02 MeV
57Ni 56.9397935(19) 35.60(6) h 3/2- 485.90 MeV
58Ni 57.9353429(7) 0+ 497.70 MeV
59Ni 58.9343467(7) 7.6(5)E+4 a 3/2- 506.71 MeV
60Ni 59.9307864(7) 0+ 518.52 MeV
61Ni 60.9310560(7) 3/2- 525.67 MeV
62Ni 61.9283451(6) 0+ 536.54 MeV
63Ni 62.9296694(6) 100.1(20) a 1/2- 543.69 MeV
64Ni 63.9279660(7) 0+ 553.63 MeV
65Ni 64.9300843(7) 2.5172(3) h 5/2- 558.91 MeV
66Ni 65.9291393(15) 54.6(3) h 0+ 567.92 MeV
67Ni 66.931569(3) 21(1) s 1/2- 574.14 MeV
68Ni 67.931869(3) 29(2) s 0+ 582.22 MeV
69Ni 68.935610(4) 11.5(3) s 9/2+ 586.57 MeV
70Ni 69.93650(37) 6.0(3) s 0+ 593.72 MeV
71Ni 70.94074(40) 2.56(3) s 1/2-# 598.07 MeV
72Ni 71.94209(47) 1.57(5) s 0+ 604.28 MeV
73Ni 72.94647(32)# 0.84(3) s (9/2+) 608.64 MeV
74Ni 73.94807(43)# 0.68(18) s 0+ 614.85 MeV
75Ni 74.95287(43)# 0.6(2) s (7/2+)# 619.20 MeV
76Ni 75.95533(97)# 470(390) ms [0.24(+55-24) s] 0+ 624.49 MeV
77Ni 76.96055(54)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 9/2+# 627.91 MeV
78Ni 77.96318(118)# 120# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 633.19 MeV
# Os valores marcados não são puramente derivada de dados experimentais, mas pelo menos em parte, das tendências sistemáticas. Rodadas com argumentos fracos de atribuição estão entre parênteses. 15

Abundância

Terra - : sulfides 16
Terra - Água do mar: 0.00056 mg/L 17
Terra -  Crosta:  84 mg/kg = 0.0084% 17
Terra -  :  0.3% 18
Terra -  Núcleo Terrestre:  8.5% 18
Terra -  Litosfera:  0.01% 19
Terra -  Completo:  1.82% 20
 -  Completo:  3.66% 20
Vénus -  Completo:  1.77 % 20
Universo -  Completo:  0.006% 18
Condritos - Completo: 4×104 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
Corpo Humano - Completo: 0.00001% 22

Compostos

Preços






Ficha de Dados de Segurança de Material - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Línguas

Africâner:   Nikkel
Albanesa:   Nikel
Arménia:   Նիկել
Árabe:   نيكل
Arromena:   Nichelu
Basca:   Nikela
:   Nikal
:   Nikel
Búlgara:   Никел
Bielorrussa:   Нікель
:   Níquel
Chinês:   镍
Córnica:   Nykel
Croata:   Nikal
:   Nikl (Pochvistík †)
Dinamarquesa:   Nikkel
Neerlandesa:   Nikkel
Esperanto:   Nikelo
Estoniano:   Nikkel
Feroesa:   Nikkul
Finlandesa:   Nikkeli
:   Nickel
: Nichel
:   Nikkel
Galega:   Níquel
:   ნიკელი
:   Nickel
Grega:   Νικελιο
Hebraica:   ניקל
Húngara:   Nikkel
:   Nikull
:   Nicil
:   Nichelio
:   ニッケル
Cassúbia:   Nikel
:   Никель
Coreana:   니켈
Letão:   Nikelis
:   Nikelis
:   Nickel
Macedônia:   Никел
:   Nikel
Maltesa:   Nikil
Manesa:   Nickyl
:   Никиль
:   Никель
:   Nikkel
Occitano:   Niquèl
Osseto:   Згъæры мыггаг
Polaca:   Nikiel
Portuguesa:   Níquel
Russa:   Никель
Gaélica Escocesa:   Nicil
:   Никал
Eslovaca:   Nikel
Castelhana:   Níquel
Sudóvio:   Nikelis
Suaíli:   Nikeli
Sueca:   Nickel
:   Nikel'
:   นิกเกิล
:   Nikel
Ucraniano:   Нікель
Uzbeque:   Никель
Vietnamita:   Nikel
Galês:   Nicel

Ver Também

Ligações Externas:

Revista Científica:
(1) John Trowbridge and Samuel Sheldon, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 24, 181-184 (1889)

Fontes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:20.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 912.
(3) - Neighbors, Marianne and Tannehill-Jones, Ruth. Human Diseases, 2nd ed.; Thomson Delmar Learning: Clifton Park, NY, 2006; p 32.
(4) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(6) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(8) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(14) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(15) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(16) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(17) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 962.
(19) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.