MOLIBDENO

Introducción

Número Atómico: 42
Grupo: 6 or VI B
Peso Atómico: 95.94
Periodo: 5
Número CAS: 7439-98-7

Clasificación

Anfígeno
Halógeno
Gases nobles
Lantánido
Actínido

Platino Metal Grupo
Transuránicos
No Isótopos Estables
Sólido
Líquido
Gas
Sólido (Predicción)

Descripción

Before Scheele recognized molybdenite as a distinct ore of a new element in 1778, it was confused with graphite and lead ore. The metal was preparedin an impure form in 1782 by Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur native, but is obtained principally from molybdenite (MoS2). Wulfenite (PbMoO4)and Powellite (Ca(MoW)O4) are also minor commercial ores. Molybdenum is also recovered as a by-product of copper and tungsten mining operations.The metal is prepared from the powder made by the hydrogen reduction of purified molybdic trioxide or ammonium molybdate. The metal is silverywhite, very hard, but is softer and more ductile than tungsten. It has a high elastic modulus, and only tungsten and tantalum, of the more readily availablemetals, have higher melting points. It is a valuable alloying agent, as it contributes to the hardenability and toughness of quenched and tempered steels.It also improves the strength of steel at high temperatures. It is used in certain nickel-based alloys, such as the “Hastelloys (R)” which are heat-resistantand corrosion-resistant to chemical solutions. Molybdenum oxidizes at elevated temperatures. The metal has found recent application as electrodesfor electrically heated glass furnaces and forehearths. The metal is also used in nuclear energy applications and for missile and aircraft parts.Molybdenum is valuable as a catalyst in the refining of petroleum. It has found application as a filament material in electronic and electrical applications.Molybdenum is an essential trace element in plant nutrition. Some lands are barren for lack of this element in the soil. Molybdenum sulfide is usefulas a lubricant, especially at high temperatures where oils would decompose. Almost all ultra-high strength steels with minimum yield points up to300,000 psi (lb/sq. in.) contain molybdenum in amounts from 0.25 to 8%. Natural molybdenum contains seven isotopes. Twenty three other isotopes andisomers are known, all of which are radioactive. Molybdenum metal costs about $1/g (99.999% purity). Commercial molybdenum metal (99.9%) costsabout $200/kg. 1

Usos/Funciones

•enzymes, sulfur metabolism…essential for enzymes in humans and other animals" 2
•Metallic molybdenum has important electrical uses as the supports of filaments in incandescent lamps and radio tubes, in resistance wires and contact points, on account of its high melting point." 3
•A number of transition metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) form interstitial carbides of composition MC and, in some cases, M2C. These carbides have extremely high melting points; they are very hard, and they are good electrical conductors." 4
•Mixed with molybdenum, scandium helps to inhibit the corrosion of zirconium." 5

Magnitudes Físicas

Punto de Fusión:6*  2623 °C = 2896.15 K = 4753.4 °F
Punto de Ebullición:6* 4639 °C = 4912.15 K = 8382.2 °F
Punto de Sublimación:6 
Punto Triple:6 
Punto Crítico:6 
Densidad:7  10.2 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuración Electrónica

Configuración Electrónica:  *[Kr] 5s1 4d5
Bloque: d
Nivel Más Alto de Energía Ocupados: 5
Electrones de Valencia: 1

Números Cuánticos:

n = 4
ℓ = 2
m = 2
ms = +½

Enlace Químico

Electronegatividad (Escala de Pauling):8 2.16
Electropositivity (Escala de Pauling): 1.84
Afinidad Electrónica:9 0.748 eV
Estados de Oxidación: +6,3,5
Función de Trabajo:10 4.30 eV = 6.8886E-19 J

Energía de Ionización   eV 11  kJ/mol  
1 7.09243    684.3
2 16.16    1559.2
3 27.13    2617.6
4 46.4    4476.9
5 54.49    5257.5
6 68.8276    6640.9
7 125.664    12124.7
8 143.6    13855.3
9 164.12    15835.2
10 186.4    17984.9
Energía de Ionización   eV 11  kJ/mol  
10 186.4    17984.9
11 209.3    20194.4
12 230.28    22218.6
13 279.1    26929.0
14 302.6    29196.5
15 544    52488.0
16 570    54996.6
17 636    61364.7
18 702    67732.7
19 767    74004.2
20 833    80372.3
Energía de Ionización   eV 11  kJ/mol  
21 902    87029.7
22 968    93397.8
23 1020    98415.0
24 1082    104397.1
25 1263    121860.9
26 1323    127650.1
27 1387    133825.1
28 1449    139807.2
29 1535    148104.9
30 1601    154473.0

Termoquímica

Capacidad Calorífica: 0.251 J/g°C 12 = 24.081 J/mol°C = 0.060 cal/g°C = 5.755 cal/mol°C
Conductividad Térmica: 138 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 13
Entalpía de Fusión: 32 kJ/mol 14 = 333.5 J/g
Entalpía de Vaporización: 598 kJ/mol 15 = 6233.1 J/g
Estado de Agregación de la Materia Entalpía de Formación (ΔHf°)16 Entropía (S°)16 Energía Libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)16
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 6.85 28.6604 0 0
(g) 157.3 658.1432 43.461 181.840824 146.4 612.5376

Isótopos

Nucleido Masa 17 Periodo de Semidesintegración 17 Espín 17 Energía de enlace nuclear
100Mo 99.907477(6) 8.5(5)E+18 a 0+ 847.39 MeV
101Mo 100.910347(6) 14.61(3) min 1/2+ 852.67 MeV
102Mo 101.910297(22) 11.3(2) min 0+ 860.75 MeV
103Mo 102.91321(7) 67.5(15) s (3/2+) 868.83 MeV
104Mo 103.91376(6) 60(2) s 0+ 876.91 MeV
105Mo 104.91697(8) 35.6(16) s (5/2-) 884.98 MeV
106Mo 105.918137(19) 8.73(12) s 0+ 893.06 MeV
107Mo 106.92169(17) 3.5(5) s (7/2-) 891.83 MeV
108Mo 107.92345(21)# 1.09(2) s 0+ 899.90 MeV
109Mo 108.92781(32)# 0.53(6) s (7/2-)# 907.98 MeV
110Mo 109.92973(43)# 0.27(1) s 0+ 916.06 MeV
111Mo 110.93441(43)# 200# ms [>300 ns] 914.82 MeV
112Mo 111.93684(64)# 150# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 922.90 MeV
113Mo 112.94188(64)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 921.67 MeV
114Mo 113.94492(75)# 80# ms [>300 ns] 0+ 929.74 MeV
115Mo 114.95029(86)# 60# ms [>300 ns] 928.51 MeV
83Mo 82.94874(54)# 23(19) ms [6(+30-3) ms] 3/2-# 671.85 MeV
84Mo 83.94009(43)# 3.8(9) ms [3.7(+10-8) s] 0+ 687.38 MeV
85Mo 84.93655(30)# 3.2(2) s (1/2-)# 699.19 MeV
86Mo 85.93070(47) 19.6(11) s 0+ 712.86 MeV
87Mo 86.92733(24) 14.05(23) s 7/2+# 723.73 MeV
88Mo 87.921953(22) 8.0(2) min 0+ 737.40 MeV
89Mo 88.919480(17) 2.11(10) min (9/2+) 747.34 MeV
90Mo 89.913937(7) 5.56(9) h 0+ 761.01 MeV
91Mo 90.911750(12) 15.49(1) min 9/2+ 770.95 MeV
92Mo 91.906811(4) ESTABLE 0+ 783.69 MeV
93Mo 92.906813(4) 4.0(8)E+3 a 5/2+ 791.77 MeV
94Mo 93.9050883(21) ESTABLE 0+ 800.78 MeV
95Mo 94.9058421(21) ESTABLE 5/2+ 808.86 MeV
96Mo 95.9046795(21) ESTABLE 0+ 817.87 MeV
97Mo 96.9060215(21) ESTABLE 5/2+ 824.08 MeV
98Mo 97.9054082(21) ESTABLE 0+ 833.09 MeV
99Mo 98.9077119(21) 2.7489(6) d 1/2+ 839.31 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no se derivan exclusivamente de datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Tiradas con argumentos de asignación débiles están encerrados entre paréntesis. 17

Abundancia

Tierra - Fuente Compuestos: sulfides 18
Tierra - Agua de mar: 0.01 mg/L 19
Tierra -  Corteza:  1.2 mg/kg = 0.00012% 19
Tierra -  Total:  2.35 ppm 20
Mercurio -  Total:  1.81 ppm 20
Venus -  Total:  2.47 ppm 20
Condritas - Total: 2.5 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 21
Cuerpo Humano - Total: 0.00001% 22

Compuestos

Precios





Información Sobre Seguridad


Ficha de Datos de Seguridad - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Idiomas

Afrikáans:   Molibdeen
Albanés:   Molibden
Armenio:   Մոլիբդեն
Árabe:   موليبيدنيوم
Arumano:   Molibdenu
Euskera:   Molibdenoa
Bosnio:   Molibden
Bretón:   Molibden
Búlgaro:   Молибден
Bielorruso:   Малібдэн
Catalán:   Molibdèn
Chino:   钼
Córnico:   Molybdenum
Croata:   Molibden
Checo:   Molybden
Danés:   Molybdæn
Neerlandés:   Molybdeen
Esperanto:   Molibdeno
Estonio:   Molübdeen
Feroés:   Molybden
Finés:   Molybdeeni
Francés:   Molybdène
Friulano: Molibden
Frisio:   Molybdeen
Gallego:   Molibdeno
Georgiano:   მოლიბდენი
Alemán:   Molybdän
Griego:   Μολυβδενιο
Hebreo:   מוליבדן
Húngaro:   Molibdén
Islandés:   Mólýbden
Irlandés:   Molaibdéineam
Italiano:   Molibdeno
Japonés:   モリブデン
Casubio:   Molibdén
Kazajo:   Молибден
Coreano:   몰리브덴, 몰리브덴넘
Letónico:   Molibdens
Lituano:   Molibdenas
Luxemburgués:   Molybdän
Macedonio:   Молибден
Malayo:   Molibdenum
Maltés:   Molibdinum
Manés:   Molybdenum
Moksha:   Молибден
Mongol:   Молибден
Noruego:   Molybden
Occitano:   Molibdèn
Osetio:   Молибден
Polaco:   Molibden
Portugués:   Molibdénio
Ruso:   Молибден
Gaélico Escocés:   Molaibdeanam
Serbio:   Молибден
Eslovaco:   Molybdén
Español:   Molibdeno
:   Malibdenas
Suajili:   Molibdeni
Sueco:   Molybden
Tayiko:   Molibden
Tailandés:   โมลิบดีนัม
Turco:   Molibden
Ucraniano:   Молібден
Uzbeko:   Молибден
Vietnamita:   Molypden, Molipden
Galés:   Molybdenwm

Véase También

Enlaces Externos:

Revistas:
(1) Raloff, Janet. Desperately Seeking Moly. Science News, September 26, 2009, pp 16-20.

Fuentes

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:19-4:20.
(2) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 926-7.
(3) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; p 560.
(4) - Jolly, William L. The Chemistry of the Non-Metals; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966; p 119.
(5) - Halka, Monica and Nordstrom, Brian. Transition Metals; Infobase Publishing: New York, NY, 2011; p 10.
(6) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(8) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(10) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(16) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(17) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(18) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(19) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(20) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(21) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(22) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.