Número Atómico: 17
Grupo: 17 or VII A
Peso Atómico: 35.453
Periodo: 3
Número CAS: 7782-50-5


Gases nobles

Platino Metal Grupo
No Isótopos Estables
Sólido (Predicción)


Discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who thought it contained oxygen; named in 1810 by Davy, who insisted it was an element.In nature it is found in the combined state only, chiefly with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite (KMgCl3 · 6H2O), and sylvite (KCl). It is amember of the halogen (salt-forming) group of elements and is obtained from chlorides by the action of oxidizing agents and more often by electrolysis;it is a greenish-yellow gas, combining directly with nearly all elements. At 10°C one volume of water dissolves 3.10 volumes of chlorine, at 30°C only1.77 volumes. Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for producing safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallestwater supplies are now usually chlorinated. It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products,medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products. Most of the chlorine produced is usedin the manufacture of chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Further use is in the manufactureof chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the extraction of bromine. Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizingagent and in substitution, since it often brings desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of syntheticrubber. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucous membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detectedas an odor, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. It was used as a war gas in 1915. Natural chlorine contains two isotopes. Sixteenother isotopes and isomers are known. 1


•[used] in drinking water and swimming pools because chlorine is used to disinfect water...Soon after the war [World War I], however, chlorine became the premier disinfectant, controlling deadly diseases such as typhoid fever that were being spread by polluted drinking water." 2
•received notoreity during World War I when it was used as a war gas." 3
•Its greatest commercial use, however, is in the preparation of chlorinated organic compounds, including plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), for bottles and packaging film." 4
•One of the most important uses for chlorine is as a bleaching agent, especially for cotton cloth...Moist chlorine is a good disinfectant, because it reacts as an oxidizing agent with protein material and kills microscopic organisms, including disease germs...Chlorine is also added to city water to kill germs. Swimming pools are kept sanitary by means of chlorine. A little chlorine added to the discharge from sewage disposal plants renders it harmless...Chlorine is used for paper pulp bleaching, water purification, textile bleaching, de-tinning and de-zincing, chlorinating and for making chlorinated hydrocarbons. Other important uses include the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride...chloroform...sulfur chloride...and many organic compounds used in dyes and medicines...Chlorine is also used for treating petroleum to make many non-inflammable materials used as solvents and cleaning fluids. Some processes for the extraction of metals from ores use chlorine." 5
•used to produce many commercially important products. Tremendous amounts of it are used in extractive metallurgy and in chlorinating hydrocarbons to produce a variety of compounds (such as polyvinyl chloride, a plastic). Chlorine is present as Cl2, NaClO, Ca(ClO)2, or Ca(ClO)Cl in household bleaches as well as bleaches for wood pulp and textiles. Under carefully controlled conditions, Cl2 is used to kill bacteria in public water supplies." 6
•10th most produced chemical in the United States in 1995 - 11.0 megatonnes." 7
•8th most produced chemical in the United States - 21.93 billion pounds" 8
•Disinfection [in chemical water analysis]" 9

Magnitudes Físicas

Densidad:10  2.898 g/L g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Configuraciónó Electrónica

Configuraciónó Electrónica: [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Bloque: p
Nivel Más Alto de Energía Ocupados: 3
Electrones de Valencia: 7

Números Cuánticos:

n = 3
ℓ = 1
m = 0
ms = -½

Enlace Químico

Electronegatividad (Escala de Pauling):11 3.16
Electropositivity (Escala de Pauling): 0.84
Afinidad Electrónica:12 3.612724 eV
Estados de Oxidación: -1

Energía de Ionización   eV 13  kJ/mol  
1 12.96764    1251.2
2 23.814    2297.7
3 39.61    3821.8
4 53.4652    5158.6
5 67.8    6541.7
Energía de Ionización   eV 13  kJ/mol  
5 67.8    6541.7
6 97.03    9362.0
7 114.1958    11018.2
8 348.28    33603.9
9 400.06    38599.9
10 455.63    43961.6
11 529.28    51067.7
Energía de Ionización   eV 13  kJ/mol  
12 591.99    57118.3
13 656.71    63362.9
14 749.76    72340.8
15 809.4    78095.2
16 3658.521    352993.5
17 3946.296    380759.6


Capacidad Calorífica: 0.479 J/g°C 14 = 16.982 J/mol°C = 0.114 cal/g°C = 4.059 cal/mol°C
Conductividad Térmica: 0.0089 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 15
Entalpía de Fusión: 3.23 kJ/mol 16 = 91.1 J/g
Entalpía de Vaporización: 10.2 kJ/mol 17 = 287.7 J/g
Estado de Agregación de la Materia Entalpía de Formación (ΔHf°)18 Entropía (S°)18 Energía Libre de Gibbs (ΔGf°)18
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(g) 0 0 53.29 222.96536 0 0


Nucleido Masa 19 Periodo de Semidesintegración 19 Espín 19 Energía de enlace nuclear
28Cl 28.02851(54)# (1+)# 181.04 MeV
29Cl 29.01411(21)# <20 ns (3/2+)# 202.16 MeV
30Cl 30.00477(21)# <30 ns (3+)# 219.56 MeV
31Cl 30.99241(5) 150(25) ms 3/2+ 238.82 MeV
32Cl 31.985690(7) 298(1) ms 1+ 253.42 MeV
33Cl 32.9774519(5) 2.511(3) s 3/2+ 268.95 MeV
34Cl 33.97376282(19) 1.5264(14) s 0+ 280.76 MeV
35Cl 34.96885268(4) ESTABLE 3/2+ 293.49 MeV
36Cl 35.96830698(8) 3.01(2)E+5 a 2+ 301.57 MeV
37Cl 36.96590259(5) ESTABLE 3/2+ 312.44 MeV
38Cl 37.96801043(10) 37.24(5) min 2- 317.73 MeV
39Cl 38.9680082(19) 55.6(2) min 3/2+ 325.81 MeV
40Cl 39.97042(3) 1.35(2) min 2- 332.02 MeV
41Cl 40.97068(7) 38.4(8) s (1/2+,3/2+) 340.10 MeV
42Cl 41.97325(15) 6.8(3) s 345.38 MeV
43Cl 42.97405(17) 3.07(7) s 3/2+# 352.53 MeV
44Cl 43.97828(12) 0.56(11) s 356.88 MeV
45Cl 44.98029(13) 400(40) ms 3/2+# 363.10 MeV
46Cl 45.98421(77) 232(2) ms 367.45 MeV
47Cl 46.98871(64)# 101(6) ms 3/2+# 371.80 MeV
48Cl 47.99495(75)# 100# ms [>200 ns] 374.29 MeV
49Cl 49.00032(86)# 50# ms [>200 ns] 3/2+# 376.78 MeV
50Cl 50.00784(97)# 20# ms 378.34 MeV
51Cl 51.01449(107)# 2# ms [>200 ns] 3/2+# 379.90 MeV
Los valores marcados con # no se derivan exclusivamente de datos experimentales, pero al menos en parte, de las tendencias sistemáticas. Tiradas con argumentos de asignación débiáes están encerrados enére paréntesis. 19


2 20
1 21
2 22
1 23
2 24
1 25
1 25
2 25
1 25
1 26
2 27
1 27
4 28
2 29
2 29
2 30
2 31
2 32
1 32
1 32
1 32
1 33
1 34
2 34
1 34
1 35
1 36
1 37
2 38
1 38
2 39
2 39
2 39


Tierra - Fuente Compuestos: halide salts or brines 40
Tierra - Agua de mar: 19400 mg/L 41
Tierra -  Corteza:  145 mg/kg = 0.0145% 41
Tierra -  Litosfera:  0.013% 42
Tierra -  Hidrosfera:  2.1% 42
Tierra -  Total:  19.9 ppm 43
Mercurio -  Total:  0.23 ppm 43
Venus -  Total:  20.9 ppm 43
Condritas - Total: 700 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 44
Cuerpo Humano - Total: 0.12% 45


(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)trimethylammonium chloride
(2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride
(C12-C18) Dialkyldimethylammonium chloride
1,1-dichloroethane; ethylidene dichloride; ethylidene chloride
1-chloro-2-butene(crotyl chloride)
1-chloropropane*; n-propyl chloride; chloromethylethane
1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride
1-naphthoyl chloride; 1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid chloride; 1-naphthalenecarbonyl chloride
2,2-Dichloroacetyl chloride
2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride
2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride
2-chlorobutane; sec-butyl chloride
2-chloropropane(isopropyl chloride)
2-methylbenzyl chloride
2-nitrobenzyl chloride
3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride
3-diazo-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride
4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoyl chloride
4-chlorobenzoyl chloride
5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride
6-diazo-5,6-dihydro-5-oxo-1-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride
acetyl chloride*; ethanoyl chloride
Acetylcholine chloride
acetylsulfanilyl chloride
acridine orange/zinc chloride complex; N,N,N**,N**-tetramethylacridine-3,6-diamine monohydrochloride, compound with zinc dichloride; 3,6-acridinediamine with zinc chloride
acryloyl chloride
adipoyl chloride
Alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride
Alkyl(C12-C16) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride
allyl chloride; 3-chloropropene*
allylpaladium chloride dimer
aluminum chloride hexahydrate; aluminium chloride hexahydrate
aluminum chloride; aluminium chloride
ammoniated mercuric chloride
ammonium chloride
amyl chloride
barium chloride
barium chloride dihydrate
Benzalkonium chloride
benzenesulfonyl chloride
Benzethonium chloride
benzoyl chloride
benzyl chloride; chloromethylbenzene
benzyltributylammonium chloride
benzyltrimethylammonium chloride
benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride
berkelium(III) chloride
beryllium chloride
bis(di-(beta-chloroethyl)sulfide)palladous chloride
bismuth(III) chloride
butyryl chloride; butanoyl chloride; n-butyryl chloride
cadmium chloride
cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate
calcium chloride
calcium chloride dihydrate
calcium chloride hexahydrate
californium(II) chloride
californium(III) chloride
cerium chloride heptahydrate
cerium(III) chloride, anhydrous
cesium chloride; caesium chloride
cetylpyridinium chloride
Cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate
cetyltrimethylammonium chloride
Chloracetyl chloride
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
chlorine dioxide
chlorine monofluoride
chlorine pentafluoride
chlorine perchlorate
chlorine trifluoride
chloroacetone; chloropropanone; acetonyl chloride
Choline chloride
chromium(II) chloride; chromous chloride
chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate; chromic chloride hexahydrate
chromium(III) chloride; chromic chloride
chromium(IV) chloride
cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate; cobalt dichloride hexahydrate
cobalt(II) chloride; cobalt dichloride
cobalt(III) chloride; cobalt trichloride
copper(I) chloride; cuprous chloride
copper(II) chloride dihydrate; cupric chloride dihydrate
copper(II) chloride; cupric chloride
crystal violet; tris(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)methylium chloride
cupric chloride dihydrate
curium(III) chloride
cyanogen chloride
Cyanuric chloride
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride
disulfuryl chloride
dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride
dysprosium(II) chloride
dysprosium(III) chloride
einsteinium(II) chloride
einsteinium(III) chloride
erbium(III) chloride
erbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
ethyl chloride; chloroethane
Ethyl mercury chloride
europium(II) chloride
europium(III) chloride
Fumaryl chloride
gadolinium(III) chloride
gadolinium(III) chloride hexahydrate
gallium(III) chloride
germanium(II) chloride
germanium(IV) chloride
gold(I) chloride
gold(I, III) chloride
gold(III) chloride; gold trichloride
hafnium chloride
Hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride
Hexamethylenetetramine cis-chloroallyl chloride
hexamminecobalt(III) chloride
holmium chloride
Homidium chloride
hydrochloric acid; hydrogen chloride
hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate; hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III); auric chloride hydrochloride trihydrate
indium(I) chloride; indium monochloride
indium(II) chloride; indium dichloride
indium(III) chloride
iridium(II) chloride
iridium(III) chloride; iridium trichloride
iridium(IV) chloride; iridium tetrachloride
iron(II) chloride dihydrate; ferrous chloride dihydrate
iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate; ferrous chloride tetrahydrate
iron(II) chloride; ferrous chloride
iron(III) chloride hexahydrate; ferric chloride hexahydrate
iron(III) chloride sulfate
iron(III) chloride; ferric chloride
Isobutyryl chloride
isophthaloyl chloride; 1,3-benzenedicarbonyldichloride
lanthanum chloride
lanthanum chloride heptahydrate
lanthanum chloride trihydrate
lauroyl chloride
lead(II) chloride
lead(IV) chloride; lead tetrachloride
lithium chloride
lithium chloride monohydrate
lutetium chloride
Lysozyme chloride
magnesium chloride
magnesium chloride hexahydrate
manganese(II) chloride
manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate
mercury(I) chloride; mercurous chloride
mercury(II) chloride
Methacholine chloride
methyl chloride; chloromethane*
methylene chloride; dichloromethane*
Methylmercury chloride
molybdenum(II) chloride; molybdenum dichloride
molybdenum(III) chloride
molybdenum(IV) chloride
molybdenum(V) chloride
molybdenum(VI) chloride
N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
N-Alkyl(C8-C18)-N,N-dimethyl-3,4-dichlorobenzylammonium chloride
neodymium(II) chloride
neodymium(III) chloride; neodymium trichloride
neptunium(III) chloride
neptunium(IV) chloride
nickel(II) chloride
nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate
niobium(III) chloride
niobium(IV) chloride
niobium(V) chloride
Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride
nitrogen oxychloride; nitrosyl chloride; nitrosonium chloride
Obidoxime chloride
Octadecyl chloride
octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride
osmium(III) chloride
osmium(III) chloride trihydrate
osmium(IV) chloride
osmium(V) chloride
palladium(II) chloride
p-anisoyl chloride; 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride
p-chlorobenzyl chloride
Phenacyl chloride(2-chloroacetophenone)
Phenyl selenyl chloride
phenylacetyl chloride
Phenylcarbylamine chloride
phosgene; carbonyl dichloride*; CG; carbon dichloride oxide; carbon oxychloride; Chloroformyl chloride; dichloroformaldehyde; dichloromethanone
phosphorus pentachloride*; phosphorus(V) chloride; pentachlorophosphorane
Phosphorylcholine chloride calcium
Picryl chloride
Pivaloyl chloride
platinum(II) chloride
platinum(III) chloride; platinum trichloride
platinum(IV) chloride; platinum tetrachloride
platium(IV) chloride pentaahydrate
plutonium(III) chloride
p-nitrobenzoyl chloride
p-nitrobenzyl chloride
Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinylidene chloride
potassium chloride
potassium tetrachloropallidate; potassium palladium chloride
praseodymium(III) chloride
promethium(III) chloride
Propionyl chloride
protactinium(IV) chloride
protactinium(V) chloride
p-toluenesulfonyl chloride; tosyl chloride
pxalyl chloride
Quaternary ammonium compound, di-(C8-C10)-alkyldimethyl, chlorides
radium chloride
rhenium(III) chloride
rhenium(IV) chloride
rhenium(V) chloride
rhenium(VI) chloride
rhodium(III) chloride; rhodium trichloride
rubidium chloride
Ruthenium chloride hydroxide
ruthenium(II) chloride
ruthenium(III) chloride
samarium(II) chloride
samarium(III) chloride
scandium(III) chloride
Sebacoyl chloride
selenium chloride
silver chloride
sodium chloride
strontium chloride
strontium chloride dihydrate
strontium chloride hexahydrate
sulfuryl chloride*; sulfonyl chloride; sulfuric chloride
tantalum(III) chloride
tantalum(IV) chloride
tantalum(V) chloride
technetium(IV) chloride
technetium(VI) chloride
terbium chloride; terbium (III) chloride
Tetrabutylammonium chloride
Tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride
Tetraethylammonium chloride
Tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-hydrate
tetraheptylammonium chloride
Tetrahexylammonium chloride
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride
tetramethylammonium chloride
tetrapentylammonium chloride
Tetraphenylarsonium chloride
Tetrapropylammonium chloride
Tetrazolium blue chloride
thallium(I) chloride; thallous chloride
thallium(II) chloride
thallium(III) chloride
thionyl chloride; sulfurous dichloride; sulfur monoxide dichloride
thiophosgene; thiocarbonyl chloride; carbonothioic dichloride
thorium(IV) chloride
thulium(II) chloride
thulium(II) chloride heptahydrate
thulium(III) chloride
tin(II) chloride dihydrate; stannous chloride dihydrate
tin(II) chloride; stannous chloride
tin(IV) chloride
tin(IV) chloride pentahydrate
titanium(II) chloride
titanium(III) chloride
titanium(IV) chloride
Tributyltin chloride
Trichloroacetyl chloride
triethylbenzylammonium chloride
trimellitic anhydride acid chloride
Trimethylene bromide chloride
Trimethyltin chloride
Triphenyltin chloride
tris(2,2**-bipyridyl)ruthenium chloride hexahydrate
tris(hydroxymethyl)methylammonium chloride
tungsten(II) chloride
tungsten(III) chloride
tungsten(IV) chloride
tungsten(V) chloride
tungsten(VI) chloride
uranium(III) chloride
uranium(IV) chloride
uranium(V) chloride
uranium(VI) chloride
valeryl chloride; pentanoyl chloride
vanadium(II) chloride
vanadium(III) chloride
vanadium(IV) chloride
Vinyl acetate-vinyl chloride copolymer
vinyl chloride
vinylidene chloride
ytterbium(II) chloride
ytterbium(III) chloride
ytterbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
ytterbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
yttrium(III) chloride
zinc ammonium chloride
zinc chloride
zirconium chloride hydroxide
zirconium(II) chloride
zirconium(IV) chloride; zirconium tetrachloride

Información Sobre Seguridad

Ficha de Datos de Seguridad - ACI Alloys, Inc.


Afrikáans:   Chloor
Albanés:   Klor
Armenio:   Քլոր
Árabe:   كلور
Arumano:   Cloru
Euskera:   Kloroa
Bosnio:   Hlor
Bretón:   Klor
Búlgaro:   Хлор
Bielorruso:   Хлор
Catalán:   Clor
Chino:   氯
Córnico:   Cloryn
Croata:   Klor
Checo:   Chlor
Danés:   Klor
Neerlandés:   Chloor
Esperanto:   Kloro
Estonio:   Kloor
Feroés:   Klor
Finés:   Kloori
Francés:   Chlore
Friulano: Clôr
Frisio:   Gloar
Gallego:   Cloro
Georgiano:   ქლორი
Alemán:   Chlor
Griego:   Χλωριο
Hebreo:   כלור
Húngaro:   Klór
Islandés:   Klór
Irlandés:   Clóirín
Italiano:   Cloro
Japonés:   塩素
Casubio:   Chlor
Kazajo:   Хлор
Coreano:   염소
Letónico:   Hlors
Lituano:   Chloras
Luxemburgués:   Chlor
Macedonio:   Хлор
Malayo:   Klorin
Maltés:   Klorin
Manés:   Cloreen
Moksha:   Клора
Mongol:   Хлор
Noruego:   Klor
Occitano:   Clòr
Osetio:   Хлор
Polaco:   Chlor
Portugués:   Cloro
Ruso:   Хлор
Gaélicé Escocés:   Clòirin
Serbio:   Хлор
Eslovaco:   Chlór
Español:   Cloro
:   Chlaras
Suajili:   Klorini
Sueco:   Klor
Tayiko:   Hlor
Tailandés:   คลอรีน
Turco:   Klor
Ucraniano:   Хлор
Uzbeko:   Хлор
Vietnamita:   Clo
Galés:   Clorin

Véasé También

Enlaces Externos:


(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:8-4:9.
(2) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; pp 58-59.
(3) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 59.
(4) - Ebbing, Darrell D. General Chemistry 3rd ed.; Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, MA, 1990; p 59.
(5) - Brownlee, Raymond B., Fuller, Robert W., and Whitsit, Jesse E. Elements of Chemistry; Allyn and Bacon: Boston, Massachusetts, 1959; pp 160-162.
(6) - Whitten, Kenneth W., Davis, Raymond E., and Peck, M. Larry. General Chemistry 6th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Orlando, FL, 2000; p 947.
(7) - Chem. Eng. News, 1995, 73 (26), p 39
(8) - Reisch, Mark S.; Top 50 Chemicals Production Turned Back Up in 1987. Chemical & Engineering News, April 11, 1988, pp 30-33.
(9) - Hammer, Mark J. Water and Wastewater Technology, 2nd ed.; Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986; p 9.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(12) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(13) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(14) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(15) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(17) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(18) - Atomic Mass Data Center. (accessed July 14, 2009).
(19) - 2
(20) - 2
(21) - 2
(22) - 2
(23) - 1
(24) - 1
(25) - 2
(26) - 2
(27) - 2
(28) - 2
(29) - 2
(30) - 1
(31) - 2
(32) - 1
(33) - 4
(34) - 1
(35) - 1
(36) - 1
(37) - 2
(38) - 2
(39) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(40) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(41) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 964.
(42) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(43) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.
(44) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 7:17.