BISMUTH

Introduction

Atomic Number: 83
Group: 15 or V A
Atomic Weight: 208.98038
Period: 6
CAS Number: 7440-69-9

Classification

Chalcogen
Halogen
Noble Gas
Lanthanoid
Actinoid
Rare Earth Metal
Platinum Group Metal
Transuranium
No Stable Isotopes
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Solid (Predicted)

Description

In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct fromlead in 1753. It is a white crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. It occurs native. The most important ores are bismuthinite or bismuth glance(Bi2S3) and bismite (Bi2O3). Peru, Japan, Mexico, Bolivia, and Canada are major bismuth producers. Much of the bismuth produced in the U.S. isobtained as a by-product in refining lead, copper, tin, silver, and gold ores. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivityis lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electricalresistance when placed in a magnetic field). “Bismanol” is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval SurfaceWeapons Center. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castingsof objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which areextensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as acatalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also usedas a thermocouple material, and has found application as a carrier for U235 or U233 fuel in atomic reactors. Its soluble salts are characterized by forminginsoluble basic salts on the addition of water, a property sometimes used in detection work. Bismuth oxychloride is used extensively in cosmetics.Bismuth subnitrate and subcarbonate are used in medicine. Natural bismuth contains only one isotope 209Bi. Forty one isotopes and isomers of bismuthare known. Bismuth metal costs about $90/kg (99.999%). 1

Physical Properties

Melting Point:2*  271.40 °C = 544.55 K = 520.52 °F
Boiling Point:2* 1564 °C = 1837.15 K = 2847.2 °F
Sublimation Point:2 
Triple Point:2 
Critical Point:2 
Density:3  9.79 g/cm3

* - at 1 atm

Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration: [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p3
Block: p
Highest Occupied Energy Level: 6
Valence Electrons: 5

Quantum Numbers:

n = 6
ℓ = 1
m = 1
ms = +½

Bonding

Electronegativity (Pauling scale):4 1.9
Electropositivity (Pauling scale): 2.1
Electron Affinity:5 0.946 eV
Oxidation States: +3,5
Work Function:6 4.36 eV = 6.98472E-19 J

Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
1 7.2856    703.0
2 16.69    1610.3
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
2 16.69    1610.3
3 25.56    2466.2
4 45.3    4370.8
Ionization Potential   eV 7  kJ/mol  
5 56    5403.2
6 88.3    8519.7

Thermochemistry

Specific Heat: 0.122 J/g°C 8 = 25.496 J/mol°C = 0.029 cal/g°C = 6.094 cal/mol°C
Thermal Conductivity: 7.87 (W/m)/K, 27ºC 9
Heat of Fusion: 11.3 kJ/mol 10 = 54.1 J/g
Heat of Vaporization: 104.8 kJ/mol 11 = 501.5 J/g
State of Matter Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)12 Entropy (S°)12 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔGf°)12
(kcal/mol) (kJ/mol) (cal/K) (J/K) (kcal/mol) (kJ/mol)
(s) 0 0 13.56 56.73504 0 0
(g) 49.5 207.108 44.67 186.89928 40.2 168.1968

Isotopes

Nuclide Mass 13 Half-Life 13 Nuclear Spin 13 Binding Energy
184Bi 184.00112(14)# 6.6(15) ms 3+# 1,393.35 MeV
185Bi 184.99763(6)# 2# ms 9/2-# 1,410.75 MeV
186Bi 185.99660(8) 14.8(7) ms (3+) 1,418.82 MeV
187Bi 186.993158(16) 32(3) ms 9/2-# 1,426.90 MeV
188Bi 187.99227(5) 44(3) ms 3+# 1,434.98 MeV
189Bi 188.98920(6) 674(11) ms (9/2-) 1,452.38 MeV
190Bi 189.9883(2) 6.3(1) s (3+) 1,460.46 MeV
191Bi 190.985786(8) 12.3(3) s (9/2-) 1,468.53 MeV
192Bi 191.98546(4) 34.6(9) s (3+) 1,476.61 MeV
193Bi 192.98296(1) 67(3) s (9/2-) 1,484.69 MeV
194Bi 193.98283(5) 95(3) s (3+) 1,492.77 MeV
195Bi 194.980651(6) 183(4) s (9/2-) 1,500.85 MeV
196Bi 195.980667(26) 5.1(2) min (3+) 1,508.93 MeV
197Bi 196.978864(9) 9.33(50) min (9/2-) 1,526.32 MeV
198Bi 197.97921(3) 10.3(3) min (2+,3+) 1,534.40 MeV
199Bi 198.977672(13) 27(1) min 9/2- 1,542.48 MeV
200Bi 199.978132(26) 36.4(5) min 7+ 1,550.56 MeV
201Bi 200.977009(16) 108(3) min 9/2- 1,558.64 MeV
202Bi 201.977742(22) 1.72(5) h 5(+#) 1,566.72 MeV
203Bi 202.976876(23) 11.76(5) h 9/2- 1,574.80 MeV
204Bi 203.977813(28) 11.22(10) h 6+ 1,582.87 MeV
205Bi 204.977389(8) 15.31(4) d 9/2- 1,590.95 MeV
206Bi 205.978499(8) 6.243(3) d 6(+) 1,599.03 MeV
207Bi 206.9784707(26) 32.9(14) a 9/2- 1,607.11 MeV
208Bi 207.9797422(25) 3.68(4)E+5 a (5)+ 1,615.19 MeV
209Bi 208.9803987(16) 1.9(2)E+19 a 9/2- 1,613.95 MeV
210Bi 209.9841204(16) 5.012(5) d 1- 1,622.03 MeV
211Bi 210.987269(6) 2.14(2) min 9/2- 1,630.11 MeV
212Bi 211.9912857(21) 60.55(6) min 1(-) 1,628.87 MeV
213Bi 212.994385(5) 45.59(6) min 9/2- 1,636.95 MeV
214Bi 213.998712(12) 19.9(4) min 1- 1,645.03 MeV
215Bi 215.001770(16) 7.6(2) min (9/2-) 1,643.79 MeV
216Bi 216.006306(12) 2.17(5) min 1-# 1,651.87 MeV
217Bi 217.00947(21)# 98.5(8) s 9/2-# 1,659.95 MeV
218Bi 218.01432(39)# 33(1) s 1-# 1,658.71 MeV
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. 13

Reactions

Abundance

Earth - Source Compounds: sulfides 15
Earth - Seawater: 0.00002 mg/L 16
Earth -  Crust:  0.0085 mg/kg = 0.00000085% 16
Earth -  Total:  2.94 ppb 17
Mercury -  Total:  0.034 ppb 17
Venus -  Total:  3.08 ppb 17
Chondrites - Total: 0.002 (relative to 106 atoms of Si) 18

Compounds

Prices





Safety Information


Material Safety Data Sheet - ACI Alloys, Inc.

Languages

Afrikaans:   Bismut
Albanian:   Bizmut
Armenian:   Բիսմութ
Arabic:   بزموث
Aromanian:   Bizmuth
Basque:   Bismutoa
Bosnian:   Bizmut
Breton:   Bismut
Bulgarian:   Бисмут
Belarusian:   Вісмут
Catalan :   Bismut
Chinese :   铋
Cornish :   Bysmuth
Croatian :   Bizmut
Czech :   Bismut
Danish:   Bismuth or Vismuth
Dutch:   Bismut
Esperanto:   Bismuto
Estonian:   Vismut
Faroese:   Vismut
Finnish:   Vismutti
French:   Bismuth
Friulan: Bismut
Frisian:   Bismut
Galician:   Bismuto
Georgian:   ბისმუტი
German:   Wismut
Greek:   Βισμουθιο
Hebrew:   ביסמות
Hungarian:   Bizmut
Icelandic:   Bismút
Irish Gaelic:   Biosmat
Italian:   Bismuto
Japanese:   ビスマス
Kashubian:   Bizmùt
Kazakh:   Висмут
Korean:   비스무트
Latvian:   Bismuts
Lithuanian:   Bismutas
Luxembourgish:   Wismut
Macedonian:   Висмут
Malay:   Bismut
Maltese :   Bizmut
Manx Gaelic:   Bismut
Moksha:   Висмут
Mongolian:   Висмут
Norwegian:   Vismut
Occitan:   Bismut
Ossetian:   Висмут
Polish:   Bizmut
Portuguese:   Bismuto
Russian:   Висмут
Scottish Gaelic:   Biosmat
Serbian:   Бизмут
Slovak:   Bizmut
Spanish:   Bismuto
Sudovian:   Bismutas
Swahili:   Bismuthi
Swedish:   Vismut
Tajik:   Vismut
Thai:   บิสมัท
Turkish:   Bizmut
Ukranian:   Вісмут
Uzbek:   Висмут
Vietnamese:   Bitmut, Bismut
Welsh:   Bismwth

For More Information

External Links:

Sources

(1) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:5-4:6.
(2) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:132.
(3) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:39-4:96.
(4) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 11th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1973; p 4:8-4:149.
(5) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:147-10:148.
(6) - Speight, James. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 16th ed.; McGraw-Hill Professional: Boston, MA, 2004; p 1:132.
(7) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 10:178 - 10:180.
(8) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 4:133.
(9) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:193, 12:219-220.
(10) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:123-6:137.
(11) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; pp 6:107-6:122.
(12) - Dean, John A. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, NY, 1979; p 9:4-9:94.
(13) - Atomic Mass Data Center. http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html (accessed July 14, 2009).
(14) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, MA, 2006; p 128.
(15) - Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Boston, MA, 2006, p 965.
(16) - Lide, David R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2002; p 14:17.
(17) - Morgan, John W. and Anders, Edward, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6973-6977 (1980)
(18) - Brownlow, Arthur. Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979, pp 15-16.